Book Reviews

How to Pass Your ASQ Certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) Exam

[IMPORTANT NOTE! As of April 20, 2015 I now have a NEW FAVORITE introductory statistics textbook… the one I’ve always dreamed of having, but it just never existed before. But today it does!! <3]

[Note: On February 9, 2015 I added my Top 10 Statistics Topics for the CSSBB Exam]

[Note: On October 4, 2012 I posted the notes I brought into the exam. You might want to check them out.]

* * * * * * * *

(Or more appropriately maybe… how I did it, and what I wish someone had blogged about before I sat for the exam! This is the chronicle of my CSSBB experience.)

I just took my ASQ Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) exam… and PASSED! On the FIRST TRY!! (My reaction upon hearing the news was… “I am a statistics NINJA!!!” A very academic friend corrected me, and said no – not quite – the CSSBB is more like a learner’s permit for a PhD in statistics. OK, that’s cool too.)

My intent in this post is to share with you what I believe helped me get through this very daunting 150-question, 4-hour, heavy-on-the-math multiple choice exam. (Relevant superstitions and helpful snacks are described elsewhere.) This was a particular achievement for me, because although I had been doing small scale Six Sigma projects for several years, I originally intended to take the exam in the fall of 2008… and just didn’t get around to it. I had, at that time, recently completed a couple of doctoral level statistics courses and so I felt super powerfully capable at the time. But what inevitably happens is that as the days go by, and you don’t use the knowledge for practical problem solving, you get rusty and you forget.

Fast forward three years, to the fall of 2011.

When I took the plunge and signed up for one of the most recent offerings of the exam, I knew I had a lot of ground to re-cover before sitting to take the test. I knew I’d have to order some books or flashcards and spend a lot of quality time with them. I knew I’d have to refresh my memory on the nooks and crannies of all those statistical tests, especially the ones that are most frequently used in manufacturing situations. So my first step was to search Google to see if anyone had posted their personal experiences studying for – and hopefully succeeding with – the ASQ CSSBB exam.

I wanted to know: What resources helped? What resources didn’t help? What books were the most useful references to you as you were studying? Are the flashcards useful? I searched and searched all over the web, but couldn’t find any useful advice. I used search terms like “cssbb advice,” “how I passed my Six Sigma Black Belt exam,” “best resources for the Six Sigma Black Belt exam” and “best study guides for the Six Sigma Black Belt exam.” No luck. Everything led me back to companies trying to sell their training sessions. I didn’t want a training session… I wanted practical, free advice from someone who had been in my shoes not too much earlier than me.

So here it is! Feel free to post some comments if any of this advice is helpful, or if you want to add information about what you found useful when you were studying. (Remember, personal experiences with CSSBB prep are hard to find on the web, so anything you contribute is bound to be helpful to people who are actively preparing to be certified.)


#1 CSSBB Primer from the Quality Council of Indianahttp://www.qualitycouncil.com/cssbb_p.asp

BEST. Book. Ever. I ordered the CSSBB Primer as well as the CD with the practice exam questions, and although I was daunted by the sheer heft of the book, the large fonts make this reference a pleasure to get to know. It feels like someone is giving you all the essential knowledge you need for the exam, along with a cookie, a glass of milk, a hug, and a heartfelt “you can do it!!”

I read through the entire book, underlined definitions or phrases that I thought were important, and used post-it notes to tab topics that I thought I’d want easy access to during the exam.

Do ALL the questions in the blue part of the CSSBB Primer. It will take time… for me, it took about 3 weeks, working on about 10 to 20 questions a day. Understand not only what the right answer is for each question, but also WHY THE OTHER OPTIONS ARE WRONG. You won’t be able to take any of the blue pages into the exam with you, so make sure you take notes about the key facts, formulas, or techniques when you have “a-ha” moments doing the practice problems. YOU WILL NOT REGRET IT.

The real ASQ CSSBB exam is actually EASIER than the questions in the CSSBB Primer, but the question styles and formats are very similar. The reason that the real exam is easier is that there are a lot of questions in the Primer where at least two of the multiple choice options will tempt you into believing that they are both correct. The multiple choice options on the real exam seem to be much more distinct – that is, you’ll have an easier time distinguishing why the wrong ones are wrong.

I think the number one reason that I passed the exam was because of the time I spent on the practice exam questions in the CSSBB Primer. The practice questions on the CD were useful too, but I think the ones in the book were the most useful.


#2 (NEW) Statistics (The Easier Way) With R by Me (Nicole)

SECOND BEST BOOK EVER. Disclaimer: I am biased.

In 2014, I wrote the book that I wish had been written previously… to help people understand the fundamental statistical concepts that you NEED to know before the more advanced Six Sigma concepts. Although I did not take this book with me into my CSSBB exam in 2012, I did take the NOTES that became this book 🙂


#2 (OLD)  The Certified Six Sigma Black Belt Handbook, Second Edition by Kubiak & Benbow

This is the second book I took with me into the CSSBB exam.

This book has mixed reviews on Amazon because apparently the book made it into print with a bunch of calculation errors in it. I didn’t lean on the calculations in this book, though, because I had the CSSBB Primer for that – and as a result, I thought this book was a great reference. Some of the concepts aren’t covered in enough depth, e.g. TPM, but there were several problems on the real exam that I wanted to double check in the references before I shaded that scantron circle with my #2… and this was the book that helped out the most in that regard.


#3  An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis by Ott & Longnecker

This was the third book I took with me into the CSSBB exam, and I think I needed it for 3 questions, 2 of which had to do with arcane aspects of DOE. However, it’s also the book that helped me get all my hypothesis testing straight, AND understand the assumptions for all of those tests.

I also LOVE LOVE LOVE this book, and think it should be a required book on the bookshelf of every Six Sigma aficionado out there.  I was first introduced to this awesome, awesome book as a student in STAT 451 at Penn State… an upper level applied stats class (which I believe is now STAT 460). In addition to providing great explanations of the concepts, Ott presents every statistical test as a recipe… what assumptions to check, how to set up the null and alternative hypotheses, how to calculate the test statistic, and how to interpret the calculated and critical values of the test statistic depending upon what alternative hypothesis you selected.

I have a hard time trying to remember whether your calculated test statistic has to be greater than or less than the critical value that you look up in a table… and this is the reference that helped me keep all those important details straight.

This book is expensive, but it’s worth it. If you can find an earlier version, these are usually much more affordable and JUST AS GOOD. Thank you, R. Lyman Ott, for making me love statistics, want to use statistical tests all the time, and want to teach college students how to do it too. You have been one of the most influential people in my life.


#4 Six Sigma for the Next Millennium: A CSSBB Guidebook by Kim Pries

I really tried to like this book, but it’s big, heavy, and there is a lot of whitespace on many of the pages (very unlike the CSSBB Primer). The amount of information per pound is relatively low. HOWEVER, I like the way it consolidates notes by topic with one topic per page. For example, there is one page with Deming’s 14 points. There’s one great page on Project Scope and another great page on Scope Containment Ideas. I’m definitely going to use some of the one-sheeters for teaching my statistics and quality classes.

Unfortunately, the book just didn’t help me as I was studying for the certification exam.


#5 The Six Sigma Handbook, Third Edition by Pyzdek & Keller

Great book but HARD TO FIND STUFF QUICKLY. I’d say read this before your exam instead of bedtime stories, take it with you when you lay on the beach, bring it to the coffee shop while you’re gently relaxing over synthesizing your Six Sigma knowledge into your blood and muscles. This is an excellent book for getting a deeper, more thoughtful understanding of Six Sigma related topics, but was not one I chose to bring into the exam with me.


#6 Statistics for Six Sigma Made Easy by Warren Brussee

This was the LEAST useful book to me for my exam prep (but it might just be as result of how my brain is wired). I find that whenever an author writes very conversationally, trying to simplify the concepts by writing long explanations of the topics (as if he or she were sitting there with you trying to explain them to you), it just confuses me. I need recipes, like what Ott provides in his book.

I can definitely see how this book might help you if you’re totally new to statistics, or if you’re starting off on the path to becoming a Six Sigma Green Belt, or if you just need someone to explain to you what in the world the meaning is behind these statistical tests.

However, IF YOU’RE CLOSE TO BECOMING A BLACK BELT, you should have a lot of this material under yours already. As a studying resource, Brussee’s book won’t be as useful to you.

Hope this helps! If you have any questions, please post them as comments below, and I will try to respond to all.

65 replies »

  1. Hi Nicole,
    Thanks you very much for this feed back !
    Regarding your preferred book, how detailed were the answers of the questions from the blue part of CSSBB Primer ?
    Do you thing it worth buying the CSSBB Solution Text ?

    • Hi David – I waited until after I tried to solve all the problems in the blue part to make my decision whether or not to buy the solutions. Once I was sure I knew how to answer most of the questions, and that I was able to show all my work OR find the page of the Primer that had the answer on it, I made the decision not to buy the extra solutions manual. (I was completely stumped on about 5% of the problems, which didn’t impact my performance on the exam at all… so the decision was a good one!)

  2. Hello Nicole..

    Thank you for helping us with CSSBB related questions.

    Do we need to complete a project to take a black belt certification? I’m ready to take the exam. Can you make it clear on this please? Do we need to do a project? I’m interested to take the ASQ’s black belt certification exam.

      • I have another question Nicole. Should the project be done on behalf of any company/organization? Can you please suggest me on how to get my project done? On what basis should I start a project in my company? How can I get this started? Can you guide me please?

        David, Cathy and Nicole as you have completed your exams/about to write.. you should have completed a project.. Did you do it individually or a group project? Please answer my questions.

        Thanks,

      • Hi again Priya – I did mine with the company I worked for at the time, just by myself (there were no other quality or Six Sigma people in my company). My project champion, though, was a PhD and so really had a critical eye that he applied to the justification of the problem statement, methodology, analysis, and results. I don’t think there are many rules regarding whether the project should be for a company, or for a community organization, or individually performed, or as a team – it just needs to be a solid, data-driven improvement project. Where are you located? I agree, it would be great to have a service where people can find organizations that need Six Sigma projects completed on their behalf.

      • Thanks so much Nicole. I’m willing to offer free labor.. I can work for any community/organization. I stay in Fremont, CA. I have knowledge about TQM, SPC, DMAIC.. I have my Masters Degree in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering and Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. I have done small projects at the university level. I have idea about all the statistical concepts like EWMA, PERT etc., and have experience with 7 new and old quality control tools.

        I’m pretty confident that I can crack the exam right away as I have been preparing since long. I didnt get an opportunity to work on a real time project that I can submit to ASQ. It would really be helpful for my career if you can help me with guiding me on how to complete my project. Guide me please

  3. This is great Nicole, so helpful in the midst of jitters for upcoming exam. I have all the books you have mentioned except the An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis book. I am considering the purchase to review in the next couple of weeks…

    • Hi Cathy – glad to hear it! The Ott book may be overwhelming at first, though… if you’re trying to get last minute studying in, I probably wouldn’t buy it just for that purpose (it might have the opposite effect… give you panic attacks because you think you missed something). If I can find them, I’ll post my notes on Monday 🙂 Good luck with your exam!!

  4. Hey Nicole.

    Great work. Sitting for the exam in couple of weeks, so a bit tensed.
    Anyways, did you prepare any personal material for the exam hall? Any kind of indexing, references that helped you?

    Thanks

    Sadique

  5. Hi,
    Great post! You can also try ‘cracking the six sigma black belt exam’ a collection of Q&A available at Mcgraw hill publications.

    best of luck

    SK

  6. Dear Black Belts,
    I am relatively new on my six sigma journey. I plan on taking my ASQ Green Belt Certification on 01 Dec 2012. What essential books do I need to buy to pass this exam?

    Nicole,
    Great post! Do you have a seperate thread for Green Belt Certification? I could not find it. Maybe you should write one for newbies like me in case you have’nt written it already !

  7. Hi Nicole, I was not aware of the QCI Primer until I read your blog. I took the exam on 6th Oct 2012 and passed (in the first shot) and I think the Primer and the CD helped me a lot. Thanks for your advice.. Please let me know if I can contribute in any way! ciao!

    • Hi Goral, could you please let me know what study materials you had used. How was the questions? How long you were preparing? I mean can you share your reviews about the exam.

      • Hello Nitish, apart from the Primer, I had the Six Sigma Black Belt handbook by TM Kubaik and another book on Business Statistics.. I also purchased the Exam CD along with the Primer.. it gives a good practice..

        In the “Tips” section of the Primer, they do mention that a few questions in the beginning of the exam are purposely set “difficult”.. You should not panic.. I personally felt that the first ~60 questions (almost the first half) were pretty challenging.. the remaining ones were very very easy.. most of them were similar to what I had already solved from the CD and the Primer.. I only messed up a little on my time management because I ended up spending more time in the first half (also lost a significant amount of confidence by assuming that the entire question set was gonna be so difficult).. but as the Primer says: DO NOT PANIC..

    • Hi;
      Can anyone tell me if the ASQ Questions bank are a better representation of what you will get in the exam vs the questions in the CSSBB Primer?

  8. Hello Nicole, I live in Germany, and I’m about to do the test for the CSSBB certification by the IASSC; do you know how acknowledged is it worldwide ? Is it really “international” ?

    Congrats for your Blog, this information was very usefull for me !

  9. Hello Nicole,

    You mentioned that the handbook helped you the most in the actual exam in checking the references.Does that mean that during the actual exam, the handbook was more helpful than the primer for looking up ? Please clarify

    • Can’t say for sure, Shailesh, but I’ve had some luck getting used copies on Amazon. Quality Council of Indiana Primers, however – I think you’ll have to get those from the source. Everyone I know who has one has their copy all marked up and tabbed up, with blood and sweat on each page, making it a text that you don’t want to part with 🙂

      Nicole

  10. Hey guys,

    I recently passed an International Association for Six Sigma Certification (IASSC) Black Belt exam for which I prepared myself. I know from my experience that it may be a daunting task to find all the necessary information and self prepare for a six sigma black belt exam. So I decided to share a six sigma black belt certification exam guide that I put together while studying for the exam. Although It is based on the IASSC body of knowledge (BOK), it still can be used for ASQ six sigma black or green belt exam preparation as there is 93% correlation between IASSC and ASQ BOKs.

    Check out my website and let me know if it helps: http://leansixsigmaguide.weebly.com/index.html

    Vasil

      • It was not easy I would say. A lot of questions were a bit vague I thought. Also some questions have multiple answers and it adds to complexity. I would focus on interpreting Minitab outputs as you sill encounter them on the exam.

  11. I recently passed an International Association for Six Sigma Certification (IASSC) Black Belt exam for which I prepared myself. I know from my experience that it may be a daunting task to find all the necessary information and self-prepare for a six sigma black belt exam. So I decided to share a six sigma black belt certification exam guide that I put together while studying for the exam. Although It is based on the IASSC body of knowledge (BOK), it still can be used for ASQ six sigma black or green belt exam preparation as there is 93% correlation between IASSC and ASQ BOKs.

    Check out my website and let me know if it helps: http://www.sixsigmatrainingfree.com

    Vasil

    I am reposting this as I moved the web-site to a new domain and want to make sure that everyone can still access the six sigma exam preparation material.

  12. Hi NIcole,

    I am a Quality Engineer and I recently cleared my CSSGB. Thanks for this concise yet comprehensive details about the materials that are useful to crack the CSSBB examination. I really liked the way you shared this valuable information for everyone else to read and use as a guideline for the exam prep. I am taking the BB exam on March 1 and I think I will have sufficient time to prepare for it.

    I had one question about the An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis book. I am planning to order this.
    But it costs about $195 for the 6th edition
    http://www.cengagebrain.com/shop/en/US/storefront/US;CMGTJSESSIONID=LfGSSrpThQhTx0nGR63b2nypW1VGKvJRwrQsjcvSkL2hsJ910cQB!-439799809?cmd=catProductDetail&gclid=CNubz6nxtLoCFStgMgodphMAuw&entryPoint=storefront&cid=GSEM1&ISBN=9780495017585&forceRegion=US&messageType=catProductDetail

    and it costs $17 for the 5th edition
    http://www.barnesandnoble.com/listing/2690616969105?r=1&cm_mmca2=pla&cm_mmc=GooglePLA-_-TextBook_NotInStock_75Up-_-Q000000633-_-2690616969105

    Any advice on this would be helpful. Basically I want to know the differences and advantages of the 6th edition over the 5th edition. Especially the price difference is so huge.

    • Hi Vinay,

      I don’t think there’s much difference between the editions… I got mine (an old one) for about $5 online several years ago!

      Good luck on your CSSBB exam… so glad you’re finding my resources useful.

      :),
      Nicole

  13. Wonderful articulation and very useful information.

    Got a question. On the exam preparation, how many weeks it took for you. I understand it varies person to person. But, I am a GB certified. Approximately, how many weeks, at minimum, I should spend to get prepared for this CSSBB exam. Please share.

  14. Hello Nicole,

    Your blog is an excellent source of advice for people who are seeking practical advice on the path to Six Sigma certification. I am planning to do Six Sigma Black Belt certification and I would like to go for the BB certification offered by ASQ. Unfortunately, I do not have any Six Sigma project experience to qualify for the ASQ certification. Are there any options available where I can gain six sigma project experiences and qualify for ASQ? If ASQ is not an option for me then I would have to go with the BB certification offered by IASSC. Is there any reliable and source of study material for IASSC BB certification just like the Indiana Primer Council that you can recommend?

    Thanks a lot in advance for your time and advice.
    Mo

  15. Hi,

    If any one who has passed the Six Sigma Black Belt certification from ASQ or IASSC could advise me on the following quetions:

    1. What % of the questions in the certification exam are calculations based and what % of the questions are theory based?
    2. On a scale of 1 -10: generally speaking, what is the level of difficulty of the calculation based question on the certification exam?

    I’m asking because mathematics and statics are not my strongest subject and your advise would help me in my preparation towards the certification.

    Thank you,
    Mo

  16. Hi Nicole,
    Thanks you very much for the feed back about preparing for the exam.
    Regarding the project, I have to submit the affidavit only, or I have to submit the affidavit with apresentation that explain my project?
    what is the deadline of submiting the projecy? ( with paying the fees or after that)

  17. Hi Nicole

    Did you do the Six Sigma or the Lean six sigma? I’m looking to do the lean version so do your study materials also apply?

    many thanks

    Jess

  18. Hi Nicole, Thank you so much for the feedback. Which calculator are you allowed to take in exam..Can you recommend one? Thanks a lot!

  19. Thanks a lot Nicole, This is the article that i have been looking for, I also read your Book ” P o l i t i c a l l y I n c o r r e c t C o l l e g e S u c c e s s ” Just could not take my eyes off it till last minute. Thanks a lot again. I will be taking up this course very soon.

    Would you suggest any online tutorial’s that would be good to refer to

  20. Hi
    Can anyone tell me if the ASQ Questions bank are a better representation of what you will get in the exam vs the questions in the CSSBB Primer? planning on taking the exam soon I focused mostly on the content of the Primer and I am little worried that I may be missing out on the type of questions offered by ASQ.

    Thank you

  21. hello
    I am new in this subject but i am interested on six sigma certifications. Currently I am in Grad school, starting my Masters in Health Studies. How beneficial is going to be, to be six sigma certified? Which level should I start? Yellow? Green? Is it worth it?
    Please let me know your thoughts. My background is bachelors in diagnostic imaging.
    Thanks

  22. Hi Nicole (or anyone else),

    Question – does the Quality Council Indiana Primer also include the solution explanations to 400 questions?

    Does the CD include solution explanations? to the 1000 questions?

    I ask because I see there’s a “CQI Primer Solutions book” for an additional $35 which indicates to me that the solutions aren’t in the primer. No idea for the CD.

    Thanks!

    • Hi Tim,

      They have the solutions but NOT the solution explanations… but that’s actually what I spent most of my study time doing (figuring out the explanations). It was very effective. I didn’t use the CD that much, but I think that it too ONLY has the solutions and not the explanations. I had the feeling that the questions on CD weren’t as “well formed” as the ones on paper in the primer… the questions had a MUCH different feel, and the questions on the exam definitely matched the BOOK and not the CD.

      Hope this is helpful!
      Nicole

  23. Nicole….I am set to buy your statistics book and the top 3-4 you recommended. This is really awesome what you have done to help all of us to prepare. I guess, I am a lot like your situation, was CSSBB trained with projects totally over 1.5 mm and became a SSBB through the Company and their testing program in 2010. Like you said, rust has set in and I am no longer with the same company and I need to get back to utilizing SIX Sigma and take the ASQ test (as it is one of the very few that carry a high level of respect in the Industry for certification). Any additional info you can recommend, is much appreciated as I prepare for the test in 2016. How much time (working full time to) would you recommend to prepare and pass test. I would rather allow enough time as to take test early and stress over it? Happy New Year and look forward to your response. Please accept my LinkedIn invite so I can keep up with your awesome posts?

    Thanks,
    Jeff

    • Hi Jeff 🙂 I’m writing a Six Sigma test helper book right now… HOPING to have it out at the end of January for people who want to laser-cram for the March exam. Shoot me your email address with a searchable subject line and I will keep you posted (I’m firstname dot last at gmail). I’d say in a nutshell, my advice is: TAKE REALLY GOOD “LOOK-UP READY” NOTES WITH YOU. My stats book actually started with the NOTES I put together for half of the CSSBB exam… knowing how to interpret inference tests and build CIs is CRUCIAL. The test is as much a test of how resourceful you are… as how good you are doing the calculations.

    • No, I’m shooting for this summer to finish it. But if you send me an email request at nicole dot radziwill at gmail, I’ll send you a couple really important chapters that might help!

  24. Hi Nicole

    Thank you for posting you’re invaluable experiences. I too have spent many hours trawling through all the providers adverts and there are so many.

    I notice a large disparity in prices from £500 to over £3,000 from the numerous providers. A price comparison website forwarded my details to a provider who has quoted £500.00 (for a Black Belt) and has called me at least 3 times today to sign. He’s got down to £379 which sends alarm bells ringing. Anyway enough of that. I actually know very little about Six Sigma (I work in service industry) and am considering on embarking on the this journey. Just a couple of questions, is it best to go through the belts one a time or to dive straight in and do the BB. Some providers mention that you don’t need the previous belts to start the black. Also how does one go about selecting a provider.?

    Many thanks

    Peter

    • Are you thinking about training programs, or the certification exam itself? I think I’d be pretty uncomfortable if someone was calling me trying to push either on me! 🙂

      Regarding certification providers, ASQ would definitely be my preference… although I’m looking into ATMAE’s new LSS certification program for my students because I know they are reputable people (http://www.atmae.org/?page=CertificationProgram). Also, ATMAE LSS doesn’t require proof of work experience… just the exam.

      If your question has to do with selecting a training provider, I’ll have to think about it a little more! You also have given me the idea of offering an online training course a couple times a year… would require some planning on my side but I could probably get it together by the fall, and that might be fun. Thank you!

      • Hi Nicole

        I was looking at on line training mainly (but also have had a look at classroom training). These providers also provide the necessary software (under a fixed licence period) along with mentoring. Some of the providers have emphasised the importance of carrying out a real life application of LSS as part of the training which I would do at my current employers. They also mentioned caution about using exam like theoretical case studies provided by some the schools/trainers as part of the training qualification as these don’t really prove that you have been really tested on real life situation.

        Cheers !

        Peter

  25. Hi All,

    I am into IT (SAP) stream from last 11 years. Now I want to change my career to Six Sigma/quality.
    Changing career at this time is looks bit risky. But I fed up with travelling and updating new technology features is disturbing my personal life.

    I am having good knowledge of manufacturing industry and want to make career in manufacturing or any other industry where six sigma applies but in in IT.
    Now I planned to learn six sigma skill and want to be settle down in Middle East Countries. Could you please guide me in this regard. send me your suggestion to mdmustafha at the rate of gmail dot com

  26. Hi,

    I am planning to take the ASQ CSSBB exam in October..I have not started preparing and statistics knowledge needs a lot of dusting. Is it too late to start preparing for the exam or do you think its ample time. I want to get a sense of how many hours per week is required to take a crack at the exam in October. Would you recommend any Online courses for the same or self study is the best way? Appreciate your help. Thanks.

    Raj

  27. Hello Nicole,

    Thankyou for the brilliant blog on CSSBB. I’m giving my exam next week and was curious to know if their is any limitation on carrying hand written notes with. I love to write and generally make my own notes to understand any topic. I see you took pages. I have my own note book with my notes on it. Could you advise if thats ok to carry.

    Regards
    Pal

  28. Thank you Nicole for starting a wonderful thread. Has been very informational from various aspects. Is there any group on LinkedIn or any other platform that we could join and be updated with latest methods?

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