## Object of Type Closure is Not Subsettable

I started using R in 2004. I started using R religiously on the day of the annular solar eclipse in Madrid (October 3, 2005) after being inspired by David Hunter’s talk at ADASS.

It took me exactly 4,889 days to figure out what this vexing error means, even though trial and error helped me move through it most every time it happened! I’m so moved by what I learned (and embarrassed that it took so long to make sense), that I have to share it with you.

This error happens when you’re trying to treat a function like a list, vector, or data frame. To fix it, start treating the function like a function.

Let’s take something that’s very obviously a function. I picked the sampling distribution simulator from a 2015 blog post I wrote. Cut and paste it into your R console:

``````sdm.sim <- function(n,src.dist=NULL,param1=NULL,param2=NULL) {
r <- 10000  # Number of replications/samples - DO NOT ADJUST
# This produces a matrix of observations with
# n columns and r rows. Each row is one sample:
my.samples <- switch(src.dist,
"E" = matrix(rexp(n*r,param1),r),
"N" = matrix(rnorm(n*r,param1,param2),r),
"U" = matrix(runif(n*r,param1,param2),r),
"P" = matrix(rpois(n*r,param1),r),
"B" = matrix(rbinom(n*r,param1,param2),r),
"G" = matrix(rgamma(n*r,param1,param2),r),
"X" = matrix(rchisq(n*r,param1),r),
"T" = matrix(rt(n*r,param1),r))
all.sample.sums <- apply(my.samples,1,sum)
all.sample.means <- apply(my.samples,1,mean)
all.sample.vars <- apply(my.samples,1,var)
par(mfrow=c(2,2))
hist(my.samples[1,],col="gray",main="Distribution of One Sample")
hist(all.sample.sums,col="gray",main="Sampling Distribution\nof
the Sum")
hist(all.sample.means,col="gray",main="Sampling Distribution\nof the Mean")
hist(all.sample.vars,col="gray",main="Sampling Distribution\nof
the Variance")
}``````

The right thing to do with this function is use it to simulate a bunch of distributions and plot them using base R. You write the function name, followed by parenthesis, followed by each of the four arguments the function needs to work. This will generate a normal distribution with mean of 20 and standard deviation of 3, along with three sampling distributions, using a sample size of 100 and 10000 replications:

``sdm.sim(100, src.dist="N", param1=20, param2=3)``

(You should get four plots, arranged in a 2×2 grid.)

But what if we tried to treat sdm.sim like a list, and call the 3rd element of it? Or what if we tried to treat it like a data frame, and we wanted to call one of the variables in the column of the data frame?

``````> sdm.sim[3]
Error in sdm.sim[3] : object of type 'closure' is not subsettable

> sdm.sim\$values
Error in sdm.sim\$values : object of type 'closure' is not subsettable``````

SURPRISE! Object of type closure is not subsettable. This happens because sdm.sim is a function, and its data type is (shockingly) something called “closure”:

``````> class(sdm.sim)
[1] "function"

> typeof(sdm.sim)
[1] "closure"``````

I had read this before on Stack Overflow a whole bunch of times, but it never really clicked until I saw it like this! And now that I had a sense for why the error was occurring, turns out it’s super easy to reproduce with functions in base R or functions in anyfamiliar packages you use:

``````> ggplot\$a
Error in ggplot\$a : object of type 'closure' is not subsettable

> table\$a
Error in table\$a : object of type 'closure' is not subsettable

> ggplot[1]
Error in ggplot[1] : object of type 'closure' is not subsettable

> table[1]
Error in table[1] : object of type 'closure' is not subsettable``````

As a result, if you’re pulling your hair out over this problem, check and see where in your rogue line of code you’re treating something like a non-function. Or maybe you picked a variable name that competes with a function name. Or maybe you got your operations out of order. In any case, change your notation so that your function is doing function things, and your code should start working.

But as Luke Smith pointed out, this is not true for functional sequences (which you can also write as functions). Functional sequences are those chains of commands you write when you’re in tidyverse mode, all strung together with %>% pipes:

Luke’s code that you can cut and paste (and try), with the top line that got cut off by Twitter, is:

``````fun1 <- . %>%
group_by(col1) %>%
mutate(n=n+h) %>%
filter(n==max(n)) %>%
ungroup() %>%
summarize(new_col=mean(n))

fun2 <- fun1[-c(2,5)] ``````

Even though Luke’s fun1 and fun2 are of type closure, they are subsettable because they contain a sequence of functions:

``````> typeof(fun1)
[1] "closure"

> typeof(fun2)
[1] "closure"

> fun1[1]
Functional sequence with the following components:

1. group_by(., col1)

Use 'functions' to extract the individual functions.

> fun1[[1]]
function (.)
group_by(., col1)``````

Don’t feel bad! This problem has plagued all of us for many, many hours (me: years), and yet it still happens to us more often than we would like to admit. Awareness of this issue will not prevent you from attempting things that give you this error in the future. It’s such a popular error that there have been memes about it and sad valentines written about it:

SCROLL DOWN PAST STEPH’S TWEET TO SEE THE JOKE!!

(Also, if you’ve made it this far, FOLLOW THESE GOOD PEOPLE ON TWITTER: @stephdesilva @djnavarro @lksmth – They all share great information on data science in general, and R in particular. Many thanks too to all the #rstats crowd who shared in my glee last night and didn’t make me feel like an idiot for not figuring this out for ALMOST 14 YEARS. It seems so simple now.

Steph is also a Microsoft whiz who you should definitely hire if you need anything R+ Microsoft. Thanks to all of you!)

## A Simple Intro to Q-Learning in R: Floor Plan Navigation

This example is drawn from “A Painless Q-Learning Tutorial” at http://mnemstudio.org/path-finding-q-learning-tutorial.htm which explains how to manually calculate iterations using the updating equation for Q-Learning, based on the Bellman Equation (image from https://www.is.uni-freiburg.de/ressourcen/business-analytics/13_reinforcementlearning.pdf):

The example explores path-finding through a house:

The question to be answered here is: What’s the best way to get from Room 2 to Room 5 (outside)? Notice that by answering this question using reinforcement learning, we will also know how to find optimal routes from any room to outside. And if we run the iterative algorithm again for a new target state, we can find out the optimal route from any room to that new target state.

Since Q-Learning is model-free, we don’t need to know how likely it is that our agent will move between any room and any other room (the transition probabilities). If you had observed the behavior in this system over time, you might be able to find that information, but it many cases it just isn’t available. So the key for this problem is to construct a Rewards Matrix that explains the benefit (or penalty!) of attempting to go from one state (room) to another.

Assigning the rewards is somewhat arbitrary, but you should give a large positive value to your target state and negative values to states that are impossible or highly undesirable. Here’s the guideline we’ll use for this problem:

• -1 if “you can’t get there from here”
• 0 if the destination is not the target state
• 100 if the destination is the target state

We’ll start constructing our rewards matrix by listing the states we’ll come FROM down the rows, and the states we’ll go TO in the columns. First, let’s fill the diagonal with -1 rewards, because we don’t want our agent to stay in the same place (that is, move from Room 1 to Room 1, or from Room 2 to Room 2, and so forth). The final one gets a 100 because if we’re already in Room 5, we want to stay there.

Next, let’s move across the first row. Starting in Room 0, we only have one choice: go to Room 4. All other possibilities are blocked (-1):

Now let’s fill in the row labeled 1. From Room 1, you have two choices: go to Room 3 (which is not great but permissible, so give it a 0) or go to Room 5 (the target, worth 100)!

Continue moving row by row, determining if you can’t get there from here (-1), you can but it’s not the target (0), or it’s the target(100). You’ll end up with a final rewards matrix that looks like this:

Now create this rewards matrix in R:

[code language=”r”]
R <- matrix(c(-1, -1, -1, -1, 0, -1,
-1, -1, -1, 0, -1, 100,
-1, -1, -1, 0, -1, -1,
-1, 0, 0, -1, 0, -1,
0, -1, -1, 0, -1, 100,
-1, 0, -1, -1, 0, 100), nrow=6, ncol=6, byrow=TRUE)
[/code]

And run the code. Notice that we’re calling the target state 6 instead of 5 because even though we have a room labeled with a zero, our matrix starts with a 1s so we have to adjust:

[code language=”r”]

results <- q.learn(R,10000,alpha=0.1,gamma=0.8,tgt.state=6)
> round(results)
[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6]
[1,] 0 0 0 0 80 0
[2,] 0 0 0 64 0 100
[3,] 0 0 0 64 0 0
[4,] 0 80 51 0 80 0
[5,] 64 0 0 64 0 100
[6,] 0 80 0 0 80 100
[/code]

You can read this table of average value to obtain policies. A policy is a “path” through the states of the system:

• Start at Room 0 (first row, labeled 1): Choose Room 4 (80), then from Room 4 choose Room 5 (100)
• Start at Room 1: Choose Room 5 (100)
• Start at Room 2: Choose Room 3 (64), from Room 3 choose Room 1 or Room 4 (80); from 1 or 4 choose 5 (100)
• Start at Room 3: Choose Room 1 or Room 4 (80), then Room 5 (100)
• Start at Room 4: Choose Room 5 (100)
• Start at Room 5: Stay at Room 5 (100)

To answer the original problem, we would take route 2-3-1-5 or 2-3-4-5 to get out the quickest if we started in Room 2. This is easy to see with a simple map, but is much more complicated when the maps get bigger.

## Reinforcement Learning: Q-Learning with the Hopping Robot

Overview: Reinforcement learning uses “reward” signals to determine how to navigate through a system in the most valuable way. (I’m particularly interested in the variant of reinforcement learning called “Q-Learning” because the goal is to create a “Quality Matrix” that can help you make the best sequence of decisions!) I found a toy robot navigation problem on the web that was solved using custom R code for reinforcement learning, and I wanted to reproduce the solution in different ways than the original author did. This post describes different ways that I solved the problem described at http://bayesianthink.blogspot.com/2014/05/hopping-robots-and-reinforcement.html

The Problem: Our agent, the robot, is placed at random on a board of wood. There’s a hole at s1, a sticky patch at s4, and the robot is trying to make appropriate decisions to navigate to s7 (the target). The image comes from the blog post linked above.

To solve a problem like this, you can use MODEL-BASED approaches if you know how likely it is that the robot will move from one state to another (that is, the transition probabilities for each action) or MODEL-FREE approaches (you don’t know how likely it is that the robot will move from state to state, but you can figure out a reward structure).

• Markov Decision Process (MDP) – If you know the states, actions, rewards, and transition probabilities (which are probably different for each action), you can determine the optimal policy or “path” through the system, given different starting states. (If transition probabilities have nothing to do with decisions that an agent makes, your MDP reduces to a Markov Chain.)
• Reinforcement Learning (RL) – If you know the states, actions, and rewards (but not the transition probabilities), you can still take an unsupervised approach. Just randomly create lots of hops through your system, and use them to update a matrix that describes the average value of each hop within the context of the system.

Solving a RL problem involves finding the optimal value functions (e.g. the Q matrix in Attempt 1) or the optimal policy (the State-Action matrix in Attempt 2). Although there are many techniques for reinforcement learning, we will use Q-learning because we don’t know the transition probabilities for each action. (If we did, we’d model it as a Markov Decision Process and use the MDPtoolbox package instead.) Q-Learning relies on traversing the system in many ways to update a matrix of average expected rewards from each state transition. This equation that it uses is from https://www.is.uni-freiburg.de/ressourcen/business-analytics/13_reinforcementlearning.pdf:

For this to work, all states have to be visited a sufficient number of times, and all state-action pairs have to be included in your experience sample. So keep this in mind when you’re trying to figure out how many iterations you need.

## Attempt 1: Quick Q-Learning with qlearn.R

• Input: A rewards matrix R. (That’s all you need! Your states are encoded in the matrix.)
• Output: A Q matrix from which you can extract optimal policies (or paths) to help you navigate the environment.
• Pros: Quick and very easy. Cons: Does not let you set epsilon (% of random actions), so all episodes are determined randomly and it may take longer to find a solution. Can take a long time to converge.

Set up the rewards matrix so it is a square matrix with all the states down the rows, starting with the first and all the states along the columns, starting with the first:

[code language=”r”]
hopper.rewards <- c(-10, 0.01, 0.01, -1, -1, -1, -1,
-10, -1, 0.1, -3, -1, -1, -1,
-1, 0.01, -1, -3, 0.01, -1, -1,
-1, -1, 0.01, -1, 0.01, 0.01, -1,
-1, -1, -1, -3, -1, 0.01, 100,
-1, -1, -1, -1, 0.01, -1, 100,
-1, -1, -1, -1, -1, 0.01, 100)

HOP <- matrix(hopper.rewards, nrow=7, ncol=7, byrow=TRUE)
> HOP
[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7]
[1,] -10 0.01 0.01 -1 -1.00 -1.00 -1
[2,] -10 -1.00 0.10 -3 -1.00 -1.00 -1
[3,] -1 0.01 -1.00 -3 0.01 -1.00 -1
[4,] -1 -1.00 0.01 -1 0.01 0.01 -1
[5,] -1 -1.00 -1.00 -3 -1.00 0.01 100
[6,] -1 -1.00 -1.00 -1 0.01 -1.00 100
[7,] -1 -1.00 -1.00 -1 -1.00 0.01 100
[/code]

Here’s how you read this: the rows represent where you’ve come FROM, and the columns represent where you’re going TO. Each element 1 through 7 corresponds directly to S1 through S7 in the cartoon above. Each cell contains a reward (or penalty, if the value is negative) if we arrive in that state.

The S1 state is bad for the robot… there’s a hole in that piece of wood, so we’d really like to keep it away from that state. Location [1,1] on the matrix tells us what reward (or penalty) we’ll receive if we start at S1 and stay at S1: -10 (that’s bad). Similarly, location [2,1] on the matrix tells us that if we start at S2 and move left to S1, that’s also bad and we should receive a penalty of -10. The S4 state is also undesirable – there’s a sticky patch there, so we’d like to keep the robot away from it. Location [3,4] on the matrix represents the action of going from S3 to S4 by moving right, which will put us on the sticky patch

[code language=”r”]
qlearn <- function(R, N, alpha, gamma, tgt.state) {
Q <- matrix(rep(0,length(R)), nrow=nrow(R))
for (i in 1:N) {
cs <- sample(1:nrow(R), 1)
while (1) {
next.states <- which(R[cs,] > -1) # Get feasible actions for cur state
if (length(next.states)==1) # There may only be one possibility
ns <- next.states
else
ns <- sample(next.states,1) # Or you may have to pick from a few
if (ns > nrow(R)) { ns <- cs }
# NOW UPDATE THE Q-MATRIX
Q[cs,ns] <- Q[cs,ns] + alpha*(R[cs,ns] + gamma*max(Q[ns, which(R[ns,] > -1)]) – Q[cs,ns])
if (ns == tgt.state) break
cs <- ns
}
}
return(round(100*Q/max(Q)))
}
[/code]

Run qlearn with the HOP rewards matrix, a learning rate of 0.1, a discount rate of 0.8, and a target state of S7 (the location to the far right of the wooden board). I did 10,000 episodes (where in each one, the robot dropped randomly onto the wooden board and has to get to S7):

[code language=”r”]
r.hop <- qlearn(HOP,10000,alpha=0.1,gamma=0.8,tgt.state=7)
> r.hop
[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7]
[1,] 0 51 64 0 0 0 0
[2,] 0 0 64 0 0 0 0
[3,] 0 51 0 0 80 0 0
[4,] 0 0 64 0 80 80 0
[5,] 0 0 0 0 0 80 100
[6,] 0 0 0 0 80 0 100
[7,] 0 0 0 0 0 80 100
[/code]

The Q-Matrix that is presented encodes the best-value solutions from each state (the “policy”). Here’s how you read it:

• If you’re at s1 (first row), hop to s3 (biggest value in first row), then hop to s5 (go to row 3 and find biggest value), then hop to s7 (go to row 5 and find biggest value)
• If you’re at s2, go right to s3, then hop to s5, then hop to s7
• If you’re at s3, hop to s5, then hop to s7
• If you’re at s4, go right to s5 OR hop to s6, then go right to s7
• If you’re at s5, hop to s7
• If you’re at s6, go right to s7
• If you’re at s7, stay there (when you’re in the target state, the value function will not be able to pick out a “best action” because the best action is to do nothing)

Alternatively, the policy can be expressed as the best action from each of the 7 states: HOP, RIGHT, HOP, RIGHT, HOP, RIGHT, (STAY PUT)

## Attempt 2: Use ReinforcementLearning Package

I also used the ReinforcementLearning package by Nicholas Proellochs (6/19/2017) described in https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ReinforcementLearning/ReinforcementLearning.pdf.

• Input: 1) a definition of the environment, 2) a list of states, 3) a list of actions, and 4) control parameters alpha (the learning rate; usually 0.1), gamma (the discount rate which describes how important future rewards are; often 0.9 indicating that 90% of the next reward will be taken into account), and epsilon (the probability that you’ll try a random action; often 0.1)
• Output: A State-Action Value matrix, which attaches a number to how good it is to be in a particular state and take an action. You can use it to determine the highest value action from each state. (It contains the same information as the Q-matrix from Attempt 1, but you don’t have to infer the action from the destination it brings you to.)
• Pros: Relatively straightforward. Allows you to specify epsilon, which controls the proportion of random actions you’ll explore as you create episodes and explore your environment. Cons: Requires manual setup of all state transitions and associated rewards.

First, I created an “environment” that describes 1) how the states will change when actions are taken, and 2) what rewards will be accrued when that happens. I assigned a reward of -1 to all actions that are not special, e.g. landing on S1, landing on S4, or landing on S7. To be perfectly consistent with Attempt 1, I could have used 0.01 instead of -1, but the results will be similar. The values you choose for rewards are sort of arbitrary, but you do need to make sure there’s a comparatively large positive reward at your target state and “negative rewards” for states you want to avoid or are physically impossible.

[code language=”r”]
my.env <- function(state,action) {
next_state <- state
if (state == state("s1") && action == "right") { next_state <- state("s2") }
if (state == state("s1") && action == "hop") { next_state <- state("s3") }

if (state == state("s2") && action == "left") {
next_state <- state("s1"); reward <- -10 }
if (state == state("s2") && action == "right") { next_state <- state("s3") }
if (state == state("s2") && action == "hop") {
next_state <- state("s4"); reward <- -3 }

if (state == state("s3") && action == "left") { next_state <- state("s2") }
if (state == state("s3") && action == "right") {
next_state <- state("s4"); reward <- -3 }
if (state == state("s3") && action == "hop") { next_state <- state("s5") }

if (state == state("s4") && action == "left") { next_state <- state("s3") }
if (state == state("s4") && action == "right") { next_state <- state("s5") }
if (state == state("s4") && action == "hop") { next_state <- state("s6") }

if (state == state("s5") && action == "left") {
next_state <- state("s4"); reward <- -3 }
if (state == state("s5") && action == "right") { next_state <- state("s6") }
if (state == state("s5") && action == "hop") {
next_state <- state("s7"); reward <- 10 }

if (state == state("s6") && action == "left") { next_state <- state("s5") }
if (state == state("s6") && action == "right") {
next_state <- state("s7"); reward <- 10 }

if (next_state == state("s7") && state != state("s7")) {
reward <- 10
} else {
reward <- -1
}
out <- list(NextState = next_state, Reward = reward)
return(out)
}
[/code]

Next, I installed and loaded up the ReinforcementLearning package and ran the RL simulation:

[code language=”r”]
install.packages("ReinforcementLearning")
library(ReinforcementLearning)
states <- c("s1", "s2", "s3", "s4", "s5", "s6", "s7")
actions <- c("left","right","hop")
data <- sampleExperience(N=3000,env=my.env,states=states,actions=actions)
control <- list(alpha = 0.1, gamma = 0.8, epsilon = 0.1)
model <- ReinforcementLearning(data, s = "State", a = "Action", r = "Reward",
s_new = "NextState", control = control)
[/code]

Now we can see the results:

[code language=”r”]
> print(model)
State-Action function Q
hop right left
s1 2.456741 1.022440 1.035193
s2 2.441032 2.452331 1.054154
s3 4.233166 2.469494 1.048073
s4 4.179853 4.221801 2.422842
s5 6.397159 4.175642 2.456108
s6 4.217752 6.410110 4.223972
s7 -4.602003 -4.593739 -4.591626

Policy
s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7
"hop" "right" "hop" "right" "hop" "right" "left"

Reward (last iteration)
[1] 223
[/code]

The recommended policy is: HOP, RIGHT, HOP, RIGHT, HOP, RIGHT, (STAY PUT)

If you tried this example and it didn’t produce the same response, don’t worry! Model-free reinforcement learning is done by simulation, and when you used the sampleExperience function, you generated a different set of state transitions to learn from. You may need more samples, or to tweak your rewards structure, or both.)

## A Newbie’s Install of Keras & Tensorflow on Windows 10 with R

This weekend, I decided it was time: I was going to update my Python environment and get Keras and Tensorflow installed so I could start doing tutorials (particularly for deep learning) using R. Although I used to be a systems administrator (about 20 years ago), I don’t do much installing or configuring so I guess that’s why I’ve put this task off for so long. And it wasn’t unwarranted: it took me the whole weekend to get the install working. Here are the steps I used to get things running on Windows 10, leveraging clues in about 15 different online resources — and yes (I found out the hard way), the order of operations is very important. I do not claim to have nailed the order of operations here, but definitely one that works.

Step 0: I had already installed the tensorflow and keras packages within R, and had been wondering why they wouldn’t work. “Of course!” I finally realized, a few weeks later. “I don’t have Python on this machine, and both of these packages depend on a Python install.” Turns out they also depend on the reticulate package, so install.packages(“reticulate”) if you have not already.

Step 2: Opened “Anaconda Prompt” from Windows Start Menu. First, to create an “environment” specifically for use with tensorflow and keras in R called “tf-keras” with a 64-bit version of Python 3.5 I typed:

`conda create -n tf-keras python=3.5 anaconda`

… and then after it was done, I did this:

```activate tf-keras

```

Step 3: Install TensorFlow from Anaconda prompt. Using the instructions at https://storage.googleapis.com/tensorflow/windows/cpu/tensorflow-1.1.0-cp35-cp35m-win_amd64.whl I typed this:

`pip install --ignore-installed --upgrade`

I didn’t know whether this worked or not — it gave me an error saying that it “can not import html5lib”, so I did this next:

`conda install -c conda-forge html5lib`

I tried to run the pip command again, but there was an error so I consulted https://www.tensorflow.org/install/install_windows. It told me to do this:

`pip install --ignore-installed --upgrade tensorflow`

This failed, and told me that the pip command had an error. I searched the web for an alternative to that command, and found this, which worked!!

`conda install -c conda-forge tensorflow`

Step 4: From inside the Anaconda prompt, I opened python by typing “python”. Next, I did this, line by line:

```import tensorflow as tf
hello = tf.constant('Hello, TensorFlow!')
sess = tf.Session()
print(sess.run(hello))```

It said “b’Hello, TensorFlow!'” which I believe means it works. (Ctrl-Z then Enter will then get you out of Python and back to the Anaconda prompt.) This means that my Python installation of TensorFlow was functional.

Step 5: Install Keras. I tried this:

`pip install keras`

…but I got the same error message that pip could not be installed or found or imported or something. So I tried this, which seemed to work:

`conda install -c conda-forge keras`

Step 6: Load them up from within R. First, I opened a 64-bit version of R v3.4.1 and did this:

```library(tensorflow)
install_tensorflow(conda="tf=keras")```

It took a couple minutes but it seemed to work.

`library(keras)`

Step 7: Try a tutorial! I decided to go for https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2017/06/getting-started-with-deep-learning-using-keras-in-r/ which guides you through developing a classifier for the MNIST handwritten image database — a very popular data science resource. I loaded up my dataset and checked to make sure it loaded properly:

`data <- data_mnist()`
```str(data)
List of 2
\$ train:List of 2
..\$ x: int [1:60000, 1:28, 1:28] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
..\$ y: int [1:60000(1d)] 5 0 4 1 9 2 1 3 1 4 ...
\$ test :List of 2
..\$ x: int [1:10000, 1:28, 1:28] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
..\$ y: int [1:10000(1d)] 7 2 1 0 4 1 4 9 5 9 ...```

Step 8: Here is the code I used to prepare the data and create the neural network model. This didn’t take long to run at all.

```trainx<-data\$train\$x
trainy<-data\$train\$y
testx<-data\$test\$x
testy<-data\$test\$y

train_x <- array(train_x, dim = c(dim(train_x)[1], prod(dim(train_x)[-1]))) / 255

test_x <- array(test_x, dim = c(dim(test_x)[1], prod(dim(test_x)[-1]))) / 255

train_y<-to_categorical(train_y,10)
test_y<-to_categorical(test_y,10)

model %>%
layer_dense(units = 784, input_shape = 784) %>%
layer_dropout(rate=0.4)%>%
layer_activation(activation = 'relu') %>%
layer_dense(units = 10) %>%
layer_activation(activation = 'softmax')

model %>% compile(
loss = 'categorical_crossentropy',
metrics = c('accuracy')
)```

Step 9: Train the network. THIS TOOK ABOUT 12 MINUTES on a powerful machine with 64GB high-performance RAM. It looks like it worked, but I don’t know how to find or evaluate the results yet.

```model %>% fit(train_x, train_y, epochs = 100, batch_size = 128)
loss_and_metrics <- model %>% evaluate(test_x, test_y, batch_size = 128)```

str(model)
Model
___________________________________________________________________________________
Layer (type) Output Shape Param #
===================================================================================
dense_1 (Dense) (None, 784) 615440
___________________________________________________________________________________
dropout_1 (Dropout) (None, 784) 0
___________________________________________________________________________________
activation_1 (Activation) (None, 784) 0
___________________________________________________________________________________
dense_2 (Dense) (None, 10) 7850
___________________________________________________________________________________
activation_2 (Activation) (None, 10) 0
===================================================================================
Total params: 623,290
Trainable params: 623,290
Non-trainable params: 0

Step 10: Next, I wanted to try the tutorial at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/kerasR/vignettes/introduction.html. Turns out this uses the kerasR package, not the keras package:

```X_train <- mnist\$X_train
Y_train <- mnist\$Y_train
X_test <- mnist\$X_test
Y_test <- mnist\$Y_test

> dim(X_train)
[1] 60000 28 28

X_train <- array(X_train, dim = c(dim(X_train)[1], prod(dim(X_train)[-1]))) / 255
X_test <- array(X_test, dim = c(dim(X_test)[1], prod(dim(X_test)[-1]))) / 255```

To check and see what’s in any individual image, type:

`image(X_train[1,,])`

At this point, the to_categorical function stopped working. I was supposed to do this but got an error:

`Y_train <- to_categorical(mnist\$Y_train, 10)`

```mm <- model.matrix(~ Y_train)

Y_train <- to_categorical(mm[,2])

mod <- Sequential()  # THIS IS THE EXCITING PART WHERE YOU USE KERAS!! :)```

But then I tried this, and it was clear I was stuck again — it wouldn’t work:

`mod\$add(Dense(units = 512, input_shape = dim(X_train)[2]))`

Stack Overflow recommended grabbing a version of kerasR from GitHub, so that’s what I did next:

```install.packages("devtools")
library(devtools)
devtools::install_github("statsmaths/kerasR")
library(kerasR)```

I got an error in R which told me to go to the Anaconda prompt (which I did), and type this:

`conda install m2w64-toolchain`

Then I went back into R and this worked fantastically:

`mod <- Sequential()`

mod\$Add would still not work though, and this is where my patience expired for the evening. I’m pretty happy though — Python is up, keras and tensorflow are up on Python, all three (keras, tensorflow, and kerasR) are up in R, and some tutorials seem to be working.

## Where Do Z-Score Tables Come From? (+ how to make them in R)

Every student learns how to look up areas under the normal curve using Z-Score tables in their first statistics class. But what is less commonly covered, especially in courses where calculus is not a prerequisite, is where those Z-Score tables come from: figuring out the area under the normal curve for all possible places you could chop it into two, then making a table from it.

You get the z-score by evaluating the integral of the equation for the bell-shaped normal curve, usually from -Inf to the z-score of interest. This is the same thing that the R command pnorm does when you provide it with a z-score. Here is the slide presentation I put together to explain the use and origin of the Z-Score table, and how it relates to pnorm and qnorm (the command that lets you input an area to find the z-score at which the area to the left is swiped out). It’s free to use under Creative Commons, and is part of the course materials that is available for use with this 2017 book.

One of the fun things I did was to make my own z-score table in R. I don’t know why anyone would WANT to do this — they are easy to find in books, and online, and if you know how to use pnorm and qnorm, you don’t need one at all. But, you can, and here’s how.

First, let’s create a z-score table just with left-tail areas. Using symmetry, we can also use this to get any areas in the right tail, because the area to the left of any -z is the same as any area to the right of any +z. Even though the z-score table contains areas in its cells, our first step is to create a table just of the z-scores that correspond to each cell:

[code language=”r”]
c0 <- seq(-3.4,0,.1)
c1 <- seq(-3.41,0,.1)
c2 <- seq(-3.42,0,.1)
c3 <- seq(-3.43,0,.1)
c4 <- seq(-3.44,0,.1)
c5 <- seq(-3.45,0,.1)
c6 <- seq(-3.46,0,.1)
c7 <- seq(-3.47,0,.1)
c8 <- seq(-3.48,0,.1)
c9 <- seq(-3.49,0,.1)
z <- cbind(c0,c1,c2,c3,c4,c5,c6,c7,c8,c9)
z

c0 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 c8 c9
[1,] -3.4 -3.41 -3.42 -3.43 -3.44 -3.45 -3.46 -3.47 -3.48 -3.49
[2,] -3.3 -3.31 -3.32 -3.33 -3.34 -3.35 -3.36 -3.37 -3.38 -3.39
[3,] -3.2 -3.21 -3.22 -3.23 -3.24 -3.25 -3.26 -3.27 -3.28 -3.29
[4,] -3.1 -3.11 -3.12 -3.13 -3.14 -3.15 -3.16 -3.17 -3.18 -3.19
[5,] -3.0 -3.01 -3.02 -3.03 -3.04 -3.05 -3.06 -3.07 -3.08 -3.09
[6,] -2.9 -2.91 -2.92 -2.93 -2.94 -2.95 -2.96 -2.97 -2.98 -2.99
[7,] -2.8 -2.81 -2.82 -2.83 -2.84 -2.85 -2.86 -2.87 -2.88 -2.89
[8,] -2.7 -2.71 -2.72 -2.73 -2.74 -2.75 -2.76 -2.77 -2.78 -2.79
[9,] -2.6 -2.61 -2.62 -2.63 -2.64 -2.65 -2.66 -2.67 -2.68 -2.69
[10,] -2.5 -2.51 -2.52 -2.53 -2.54 -2.55 -2.56 -2.57 -2.58 -2.59
[11,] -2.4 -2.41 -2.42 -2.43 -2.44 -2.45 -2.46 -2.47 -2.48 -2.49
[12,] -2.3 -2.31 -2.32 -2.33 -2.34 -2.35 -2.36 -2.37 -2.38 -2.39
[13,] -2.2 -2.21 -2.22 -2.23 -2.24 -2.25 -2.26 -2.27 -2.28 -2.29
[14,] -2.1 -2.11 -2.12 -2.13 -2.14 -2.15 -2.16 -2.17 -2.18 -2.19
[15,] -2.0 -2.01 -2.02 -2.03 -2.04 -2.05 -2.06 -2.07 -2.08 -2.09
[16,] -1.9 -1.91 -1.92 -1.93 -1.94 -1.95 -1.96 -1.97 -1.98 -1.99
[17,] -1.8 -1.81 -1.82 -1.83 -1.84 -1.85 -1.86 -1.87 -1.88 -1.89
[18,] -1.7 -1.71 -1.72 -1.73 -1.74 -1.75 -1.76 -1.77 -1.78 -1.79
[19,] -1.6 -1.61 -1.62 -1.63 -1.64 -1.65 -1.66 -1.67 -1.68 -1.69
[20,] -1.5 -1.51 -1.52 -1.53 -1.54 -1.55 -1.56 -1.57 -1.58 -1.59
[21,] -1.4 -1.41 -1.42 -1.43 -1.44 -1.45 -1.46 -1.47 -1.48 -1.49
[22,] -1.3 -1.31 -1.32 -1.33 -1.34 -1.35 -1.36 -1.37 -1.38 -1.39
[23,] -1.2 -1.21 -1.22 -1.23 -1.24 -1.25 -1.26 -1.27 -1.28 -1.29
[24,] -1.1 -1.11 -1.12 -1.13 -1.14 -1.15 -1.16 -1.17 -1.18 -1.19
[25,] -1.0 -1.01 -1.02 -1.03 -1.04 -1.05 -1.06 -1.07 -1.08 -1.09
[26,] -0.9 -0.91 -0.92 -0.93 -0.94 -0.95 -0.96 -0.97 -0.98 -0.99
[27,] -0.8 -0.81 -0.82 -0.83 -0.84 -0.85 -0.86 -0.87 -0.88 -0.89
[28,] -0.7 -0.71 -0.72 -0.73 -0.74 -0.75 -0.76 -0.77 -0.78 -0.79
[29,] -0.6 -0.61 -0.62 -0.63 -0.64 -0.65 -0.66 -0.67 -0.68 -0.69
[30,] -0.5 -0.51 -0.52 -0.53 -0.54 -0.55 -0.56 -0.57 -0.58 -0.59
[31,] -0.4 -0.41 -0.42 -0.43 -0.44 -0.45 -0.46 -0.47 -0.48 -0.49
[32,] -0.3 -0.31 -0.32 -0.33 -0.34 -0.35 -0.36 -0.37 -0.38 -0.39
[33,] -0.2 -0.21 -0.22 -0.23 -0.24 -0.25 -0.26 -0.27 -0.28 -0.29
[34,] -0.1 -0.11 -0.12 -0.13 -0.14 -0.15 -0.16 -0.17 -0.18 -0.19
[35,] 0.0 -0.01 -0.02 -0.03 -0.04 -0.05 -0.06 -0.07 -0.08 -0.09
[/code]

Now that we have slots for all the z-scores, we can use pnorm to transform all those values into the areas that are swiped out to the left of that z-score. This part is easy, and only takes one line. The remaining three lines format and display the z-score table:

[code]
zscore.df <- round(pnorm(z),4)
row.names(zscore.df) <- sprintf(“%.2f”, c0)
colnames(zscore.df) <- seq(0,0.09,0.01)
zscore.df

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
-3.40 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0002
-3.30 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003
-3.20 0.0007 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005
-3.10 0.0010 0.0009 0.0009 0.0009 0.0008 0.0008 0.0008 0.0008 0.0007 0.0007
-3.00 0.0013 0.0013 0.0013 0.0012 0.0012 0.0011 0.0011 0.0011 0.0010 0.0010
-2.90 0.0019 0.0018 0.0018 0.0017 0.0016 0.0016 0.0015 0.0015 0.0014 0.0014
-2.80 0.0026 0.0025 0.0024 0.0023 0.0023 0.0022 0.0021 0.0021 0.0020 0.0019
-2.70 0.0035 0.0034 0.0033 0.0032 0.0031 0.0030 0.0029 0.0028 0.0027 0.0026
-2.60 0.0047 0.0045 0.0044 0.0043 0.0041 0.0040 0.0039 0.0038 0.0037 0.0036
-2.50 0.0062 0.0060 0.0059 0.0057 0.0055 0.0054 0.0052 0.0051 0.0049 0.0048
-2.40 0.0082 0.0080 0.0078 0.0075 0.0073 0.0071 0.0069 0.0068 0.0066 0.0064
-2.30 0.0107 0.0104 0.0102 0.0099 0.0096 0.0094 0.0091 0.0089 0.0087 0.0084
-2.20 0.0139 0.0136 0.0132 0.0129 0.0125 0.0122 0.0119 0.0116 0.0113 0.0110
-2.10 0.0179 0.0174 0.0170 0.0166 0.0162 0.0158 0.0154 0.0150 0.0146 0.0143
-2.00 0.0228 0.0222 0.0217 0.0212 0.0207 0.0202 0.0197 0.0192 0.0188 0.0183
-1.90 0.0287 0.0281 0.0274 0.0268 0.0262 0.0256 0.0250 0.0244 0.0239 0.0233
-1.80 0.0359 0.0351 0.0344 0.0336 0.0329 0.0322 0.0314 0.0307 0.0301 0.0294
-1.70 0.0446 0.0436 0.0427 0.0418 0.0409 0.0401 0.0392 0.0384 0.0375 0.0367
-1.60 0.0548 0.0537 0.0526 0.0516 0.0505 0.0495 0.0485 0.0475 0.0465 0.0455
-1.50 0.0668 0.0655 0.0643 0.0630 0.0618 0.0606 0.0594 0.0582 0.0571 0.0559
-1.40 0.0808 0.0793 0.0778 0.0764 0.0749 0.0735 0.0721 0.0708 0.0694 0.0681
-1.30 0.0968 0.0951 0.0934 0.0918 0.0901 0.0885 0.0869 0.0853 0.0838 0.0823
-1.20 0.1151 0.1131 0.1112 0.1093 0.1075 0.1056 0.1038 0.1020 0.1003 0.0985
-1.10 0.1357 0.1335 0.1314 0.1292 0.1271 0.1251 0.1230 0.1210 0.1190 0.1170
-1.00 0.1587 0.1562 0.1539 0.1515 0.1492 0.1469 0.1446 0.1423 0.1401 0.1379
-0.90 0.1841 0.1814 0.1788 0.1762 0.1736 0.1711 0.1685 0.1660 0.1635 0.1611
-0.80 0.2119 0.2090 0.2061 0.2033 0.2005 0.1977 0.1949 0.1922 0.1894 0.1867
-0.70 0.2420 0.2389 0.2358 0.2327 0.2296 0.2266 0.2236 0.2206 0.2177 0.2148
-0.60 0.2743 0.2709 0.2676 0.2643 0.2611 0.2578 0.2546 0.2514 0.2483 0.2451
-0.50 0.3085 0.3050 0.3015 0.2981 0.2946 0.2912 0.2877 0.2843 0.2810 0.2776
-0.40 0.3446 0.3409 0.3372 0.3336 0.3300 0.3264 0.3228 0.3192 0.3156 0.3121
-0.30 0.3821 0.3783 0.3745 0.3707 0.3669 0.3632 0.3594 0.3557 0.3520 0.3483
-0.20 0.4207 0.4168 0.4129 0.4090 0.4052 0.4013 0.3974 0.3936 0.3897 0.3859
-0.10 0.4602 0.4562 0.4522 0.4483 0.4443 0.4404 0.4364 0.4325 0.4286 0.4247
0.00 0.5000 0.4960 0.4920 0.4880 0.4840 0.4801 0.4761 0.4721 0.4681 0.4641
[/code]

You can also draw a picture to go along with your z-score table, so that people remember which area they are looking up:

[code]
x <- seq(-4,4,0.1)
y <- dnorm(x)
plot(x,dnorm(x),type=”l”, col=”black”, lwd=3)
abline(v=-1,lwd=3,col=”blue”)
abline(h=0,lwd=3,col=”black”)
polygon(c(x[1:31],rev(x[1:31])), c(rep(0,31),rev(y[1:31])), col=”lightblue”)
[/code]

It looks like this:

In the slides, code to produce a giant-tail z-score table is also provided (where the areas are > 50%).

## Taking a Subset of a Data Frame in R

I just wrote a new chapter for my students describing how to subset a data frame in R. The full text is available at https://docs.google.com/document/d/1K5U11-IKRkxNmitu_lS71Z6uLTQW_fp6QNbOMMwA5J8/edit?usp=sharing but here’s a preview:

Let’s load in ChickWeight, one of R’s built in datasets. This contains the weights of little chickens at 12 different times throughout their lives. The chickens are on different diets, numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4. Using the str command, we find that there are 578 observations in this data frame, and two different categorical variables: Chick and Diet.

[code]
> data(ChickWeight)
weight Time Chick Diet
1 42 0 1 1
2 51 2 1 1
3 59 4 1 1
4 64 6 1 1
5 76 8 1 1
6 93 10 1 1
> str(ChickWeight)
Classes ‘nfnGroupedData’, ‘nfGroupedData’, ‘groupedData’ and ‘data.frame’: 578 obs. of 4 variables:
\$ weight: num 42 51 59 64 76 93 106 125 149 171 …
\$ Time : num 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 …
\$ Chick : Ord.factor w/ 50 levels "18"<"16"<"15"<..: 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 …
\$ Diet : Factor w/ 4 levels "1","2","3","4": 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 …
– attr(*, "formula")=Class ‘formula’ length 3 weight ~ Time | Chick
.. ..- attr(*, ".Environment")=<environment: R_EmptyEnv>
– attr(*, "outer")=Class ‘formula’ length 2 ~Diet
.. ..- attr(*, ".Environment")=<environment: R_EmptyEnv>
– attr(*, "labels")=List of 2
..\$ x: chr "Time"
..\$ y: chr "Body weight"
– attr(*, "units")=List of 2
..\$ x: chr "(days)"
..\$ y: chr "(gm)"
[/code]

Get One Column: Now that we have a data frame named ChickWeight loaded into R, we can take subsets of these 578 observations. First, let’s assume we just want to pull out the column of weights. There are two ways we can do this: specifying the column by name, or specifying the column by its order of appearance. The general form for pulling information from data frames is data.frame[rows,columns] so you can get the first column in either of these two ways:

[code]
ChickWeight[,1] # get all rows, but only the first column
ChickWeight[,c("weight")] # get all rows, and only the column named “weight”
[/code]

Get Multiple Columns: If you want more than one column, you can specify the column numbers or the names of the variables that you want to extract. If you want to get the weight and diet columns, you would do this:
[code]
ChickWeight[,c(1,4)] # get all rows, but only 1st and 4th columns
ChickWeight[,c("weight","Diet")] # get all rows, only “weight” & “Diet” columns
[/code]

If you want more than one column and those columns are next to each other, you can do this:
[code]
ChickWeight[,c(1:3)]
[/code]

Get One Row: You can get the first row similarly to how you got the first column, and any other row the same way:
[code]
ChickWeight[1,] # get first row, and all columns
ChickWeight[82,] # get 82nd row, and all columns
[/code]

Get Multiple Rows: If you want more than one row, you can specify the row numbers you want like this:
[code]
> ChickWeight[c(1:6,15,18,27),]
weight Time Chick Diet
1 42 0 1 1
2 51 2 1 1
3 59 4 1 1
4 64 6 1 1
5 76 8 1 1
6 93 10 1 1
15 58 4 2 1
18 103 10 2 1
27 55 4 3 1
[/code]

## Using xda with googlesheets in R

Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to

Want to do a quick, exploratory data analysis in R of your data that’s stored in a spreadsheet on Google Drive? You’re in luck, because now you can use the new xda package in conjunction with Jenny Bryan‘s googlesheets. There are some quirks, though, and that’s what this post is all about.

Before proceeding, you should review this recent article from R-Bloggers called “Introducing xda”.

First, be sure to install the googlesheets and xda packages. Although googlesheets is on CRAN, xda is not, and you’ll have to bring it in directly from github. You can actually do the same for googlesheets if you like:

[code language=”r” gutter=”false”]
install.packages("devtools")
library(devtools)
install_github("ujjwalkarn/xda")
library(xda)
[/code]

Next, you’ll have to show R how to access your Google spreadsheet. While you are looking at your spreadsheet, go to File -> Publish to the Web. The URL that’s in the text box is the one you want to capture. Just to make sure it works, copy and paste it into a new browser address window and see if you can display your spreadsheet in your browser.

If you want to import the data at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1DO0ksD8d-rn_j2Yn7DQKZDPBrhrvZTpgszewxokjWKU/pubhtml into R, for example, you’ll need to know the spreadsheet’s key. That’s the long string of unintelligible numbers and letters between the “d” and the “pubhtml”. So, my key would be “1DO0ksD8d-rn_j2Yn7DQKZDPBrhrvZTpgszewxokjWKU” — which you’ll see in this next block of code:

[code language=”r” gutter=”false”]
> my.gs <- gs_key("1DO0ksD8d-rn_j2Yn7DQKZDPBrhrvZTpgszewxokjWKU")
> my.data <- gs_read(my.gs) # Retrieves data from googlesheets and places it into an R object.
> my.df <- as.data.frame(my.data) # Important! xda needs you to extract only the data in a data frame.
[/code]

Now, you can access your data. Try head(my.df) to make sure you’ve imported it properly.

Next, it’s time for exploratory data analysis. There are three commands available:

• numSummary – takes a data frame as an argument, provides descriptive statistics, quantiles, and missing data info for quantitative variables
• charSummary – takes a data frame as an argument, provides counts, missing data info, and number of unique factors for quantitative variables
• bivariate – takes a data frame and two quantitative variables as an argument, and performs a quick bivariate analysis (giving this categorical variables, or giving this one categorical and one quantitative variable, will throw an error)

[code language=”r” gutter=”false”]
> numSummary(my.df)
n mean sd median max min mode miss miss% 1% 5% 25% 50% 75% 90% 95% 99%
obs 200 100.50 57.88 100.5 200.0 1.0 1.0 0 0 2.99 11.0 50.8 100.5 150.2 180.1 190.0 198.0
heartrates 200 73.01 7.43 73.0 96.3 53.4 71.2 0 0 56.49 61.2 68.4 73.0 77.4 82.6 85.7 90.3
systolics 200 139.27 29.27 138.0 221.0 59.0 139.0 0 0 79.98 96.0 117.0 138.0 160.0 177.2 188.1 205.0
diastolics 200 87.76 9.74 87.7 116.4 62.4 85.2 0 0 66.01 72.2 81.9 87.7 93.7 100.3 104.5 108.3
bmis 200 25.53 3.06 25.0 33.1 18.4 24.7 0 0 19.00 21.0 23.5 25.0 27.7 29.6 31.2 32.8
ages 200 44.41 14.59 45.0 70.0 18.0 30.0 0 0 18.00 22.0 32.0 45.0 57.0 64.1 67.0 70.0
heartpm 200 72.26 3.55 72.2 83.8 64.2 74.2 0 0 64.72 66.2 69.8 72.2 74.2 76.4 78.7 81.4
fitnesslevel 200 2.62 1.17 3.0 4.0 1.0 4.0 0 0 1.00 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

> charSummary(my.df)
n miss miss% unique
genders 200 0 0 2
smokers 200 0 0 2
group 200 0 0 4

> bivariate(my.df,’heartrates’,’bmis’)
bin_bmis min_heartrates max_heartrates mean_heartrates
1 (18.3,22] 53.40 85.60 72.80
2 (22,25.7] 55.70 90.70 72.87
3 (25.7,29.4] 60.30 96.30 73.45
4 (29.4,33.1] 56.50 90.30 72.46

[/code]

Observations:

• There is a fourth “Plot” command but I couldn’t get it to work on any googlesheetsdata. The xda package is looking for class(range) to be anything other than “function”, which it was for every sheet I attempted to load.
• There really should be an extra column in xda that displays the enumeration of all the unique values for the factors. It felt great to know how many unique values there were, but I would love to be reminded of what they are too, unless there are too many of them.