## An Easy Way to Make Minimum Viable Product (MVP) Totally Not Viable

The Minimum Viable Product (MVP) concept has taken off over the past few years. Indeed, its heart is in the right place. MVP encourages product managers to scope features and functionality carefully so that customer needs are satisfied at every stage of development — not just in a sweeping finale at the end of development.

It’s a great way to shorten time-to-value and test new market concepts before committing. Zappos, for example, started by posting pictures of shoes on the internet without having an inventory. They wanted to quickly test to see whether people would even consider buying shoes without trying them on.

Unfortunately, adhering to MVP won’t guarantee success thanks to one critical caveat. And that is: if your product already exists, you have to consider your product’s base state. What can your customers do right now with your product? Failure to take this into consideration can be disastrous.

### An Example: Your Web Site

Here’s what I mean: let’s say the product is your company’s web site. If you’re starting from scratch, a perfectly suitable MVP would be a splash page with one or two sentences about what you do. Maybe you’d add some contact information. Customers will be able to find you and communicate with you, and you’ll be providing greater value than without a web presence.

But if you already have a 5000-page site online, that solution is not going to fly. Customers and prospects returning to your site will wonder why it vaporized. If they’re relying on the content or functionality you previously provided, chances are they will not be happy. Confused, they may choose to go elsewhere.

The moral of the story is: in defining the scope of your MVP, take into consideration what your customers can already do, and don’t dare give them less in your next release.

## Perception of Value & Today’s Cryptocurrency “Crash”

Artist’s rendering of Bitcoin. THERE ARE NO ACTUAL COINS THAT LOOK LIKE THIS. Don’t ever let anyone sell you one.

Today, many cryptocurrencies lost ~35-50% of their value. Reddit even posted contact information for the National Suicide Prevention Hotline in /r/cryptocurrency, knowing how emotional investors were bound to be today. Bitcoin, which was nearly $20K in mid-December and has been hovering near$14K this past week, dropped nearly $4K and almost sunk below the$10K milestone. I usually track the price of Bitcoin at http://bitcointicker.co, which can show the posted prices from several exchanges (web locations where people go to buy and sell, like Ebay). There are hundreds of cryptocurrencies and many of them dropped in value today.

Why did the prices drop so much on Tuesday? Here are some likely influences:

• The government of South Korea announced its plans to prepare a bill banning cryptocurrency trading (specifically Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple); trading volume has been high in South Korea this past year, and the transactions have propped up global cryptocurrency prices.
• The web-based BlackWallet software used to trade the Stellar Lumens (XLM) cryptocurrency was hijacked by hackers who redirected the Domain Name Service (DNS)
to a site that looked just like BlackWallet – but wasn’t. They were able to capture $444K worth of XLM. (https://www.hackread.com/blackwallet-hacked-hackers-replace-dns-server-steal-stellar/) • Wells Fargo Chairman and CEO Dick Kovacevich called Bitcoin a “scam” and “pyramid scheme” today, asserting that traders are exchanging something with no inherent value and the people at the tail end of the scam are doomed to financial losses. • The day after, North Korea was suspected of hacking the Bitcoin wallets of South Koreans, further destabilizing perception of the cryptocurrency’s safety (https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/17/north-korea-hackers-linked-to-cryptocurrency-cyberattack-on-south-korea.html Market prices are usually driven by supply and demand — for example, if there aren’t that many lobsters available in a particular area at a particular time, and you go to a restaurant hoping to order one — you’ll pay a premium. But that price is also influenced by the quality of the product, the image of the product, which influences your perception of its value. Quality reflects how well something satisfies stated and implied needs or expectations. Value, however, is quality relative to price, and influenced by image. And people are not always rational: they’ll pay a premium for image, even if the value of a product isn’t particularly high. Just think of all the Macs on display at schools, coffee shops, and airports. Price is related to value… usually, price goes up as value goes up. Where’s the value of cryptocurrency? A Bitcoin does not, on its own, have any inherent value — just like a dollar or a Euro (a “fiat currency”). But the prospect of an asset that will increase in perceived value — where you can buy low, hold (sometimes just for a few days), and sell high because there are lots of people willing to buy it from you — will have perceived value. Hundreds of early adopters — or “Bitcoin millionaires” — are getting people excited about the prospect of making small investments and reaping huge rewards. That this has happened so recently lends a mystique to ownership of cryptocurrencies and Altcoins (or “alternatives to Bitcoin,” like Ether) in addition to the novelty. Value is attributed to things by people, and cryptocurrencies are no exception. The quality of the currency itself, and the technical solidity of the platform upon which one is based, isn’t really tied to the cryptocurrency price right now — although this will probably change as knowledge and awareness increases. Is this the end of Bitcoin? That’s doubtful — there are too many innovators who insist on exploring the technological landscape of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology, and lots of investors willing to fund them. In the meantime, there are unlikely benefits: because cryptocurrencies are not yet mainstream, a “crypto crash” is not as likely to ripple through the whole economy (no pun intended) like the subprime mortgage crisis of 2008. But if you do decide to buy cryptocurrency, don’t invest any more than you can afford to lose. ## How to Assess the Quality of a Chatbot Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to Quality is the “totality of characteristics of an entity that bear upon its ability to meet stated and implied needs.” (ISO 9001:2015, p.3.1.5) Quality assurance is the practice of assessing whether a particular product or service has the characteristics to meet needs, and through continuous improvement efforts, we use data to tell us whether or not we are adjusting those characteristics to more effectively meet the needs of our stakeholders. But what if the entity is a chatbot? In June 2017, we published a paper that explored that question. We mined the academic and industry literature to determine 1) what quality attributes have been used by others to determine chatbot quality, we 2) organized them according to the efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction (using guidance from the ISO 9241 definition of usability), and 3) we explored the utility of Saaty’s Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to help organizations select between one or more versions of chatbots based on quality considerations. (It’s sort of like A/B testing for chatbots.) “There are many ways for practitioners to apply the material in this article: • The quality attributes in Table 1 can be used as a checklist for a chatbot implementation team to make sure they have addressed key issues. • Two or more conversational systems can be compared by selecting the most significant quality attributes. • Systems can be compared at two points in time to see if quality has improved, which may be particularly useful for adaptive systems that learn as they as exposed to additional participants and topics.” ## Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with the ahp Package On my December to-do list, I had “write an R package to make analytic hierarchy process (AHP) easier” — but fortunately gluc beat me to it, and saved me tons of time that I spent using AHP to do an actual research problem. First of all, thank you for writing the new ahp package! Next, I’d like to show everyone just how easy this package makes performing AHP and displaying the results. We will use the Tom, Dick, and Harry example that is described on Wikipedia. – the goal is to choose a new employee, and you can pick either Tom, Dick, or Harry. Read the problem statement on Wikipedia before proceeding. AHP is a method for multi-criteria decision making that breaks the problem down based on decision criteria, subcriteria, and alternatives that could satisfy a particular goal. The criteria are compared to one another, the alternatives are compared to one another based on how well they comparatively satisfy the subcriteria, and then the subcriteria are examined in terms of how well they satisfy the higher-level criteria. The Tom-Dick-Harry problem is a simple hierarchy: only one level of criteria separates the goal (“Choose the Most Suitable Leader”) from the alternatives (Tom, Dick, or Harry): To use the ahp package, the most challenging part involves setting up the YAML file with your hierarchy and your rankings. THE MOST IMPORTANT THING TO REMEMBER IS THAT THE FIRST COLUMN IN WHICH A WORD APPEARS IS IMPORTANT. This feels like FORTRAN. YAML experts may be appalled that I just didn’t know this, but I didn’t. So most of the first 20 hours I spent stumbling through the ahp package involved coming to this very critical conclusion. The YAML AHP input file requires you to specify 1) the alternatives (along with some variables that describe the alternatives; I didn’t use them in this example, but I’ll post a second example that does use them) and 2) the goal hierarchy, which includes 2A) comparisons of all the criteria against one another FIRST, and then 2B) comparisons of the criteria against the alternatives. I saved my YAML file as tomdickharry.txt and put it in my C:/AHP/artifacts directory: [code language=”bash” gutter=”false”] ######################### # Alternatives Section # THIS IS FOR The Tom, Dick, & Harry problem at # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytic_hierarchy_process_%E2%80%93_leader_example # Alternatives: &alternatives # 1= not well; 10 = best possible # Your assessment based on the paragraph descriptions may be different. Tom: age: 50 experience: 7 education: 4 leadership: 10 Dick: age: 60 experience: 10 education: 6 leadership: 6 Harry: age: 30 experience: 5 education: 8 leadership: 6 # # End of Alternatives Section ##################################### # Goal Section # Goal: # A Goal HAS preferences (within-level comparison) and HAS Children (items in level) name: Choose the Most Suitable Leader preferences: # preferences are defined pairwise # 1 means: A is equal to B # 9 means: A is highly preferable to B # 1/9 means: B is highly preferable to A – [Experience, Education, 4] – [Experience, Charisma, 3] – [Experience, Age, 7] – [Education, Charisma, 1/3] – [Education, Age, 3] – [Age, Charisma, 1/5] children: Experience: preferences: – [Tom, Dick, 1/4] – [Tom, Harry, 4] – [Dick, Harry, 9] children: *alternatives Education: preferences: – [Tom, Dick, 3] – [Tom, Harry, 1/5] – [Dick, Harry, 1/7] children: *alternatives Charisma: preferences: – [Tom, Dick, 5] – [Tom, Harry, 9] – [Dick, Harry, 4] children: *alternatives Age: preferences: – [Tom, Dick, 1/3] – [Tom, Harry, 5] – [Dick, Harry, 9] children: *alternatives # # End of Goal Section ##################################### [/code] Next, I installed gluc’s ahp package and a helper package, data.tree, then loaded them into R: [code language=”bash” gutter=”false”] devtools::install_github("gluc/ahp", build_vignettes = TRUE) install.packages("data.tree") library(ahp) library(data.tree) [/code] Running the calculations was ridiculously easy: [code language=”bash” gutter=”false”] setwd("C:/AHP/artifacts") myAhp <- LoadFile("tomdickharry.txt") Calculate(myAhp) [/code] And then generating the output was also ridiculously easy: [code language=”bash” gutter=”false”] > GetDataFrame(myAhp) Weight Dick Tom Harry Consistency 1 Choose the Most Suitable Leader 100.0% 49.3% 35.8% 14.9% 4.4% 2 ¦–Experience 54.8% 39.3% 11.9% 3.6% 3.2% 3 ¦–Education 12.7% 1.0% 2.4% 9.2% 5.6% 4 ¦–Charisma 27.0% 5.2% 20.1% 1.7% 6.1% 5 °–Age 5.6% 3.8% 1.5% 0.4% 2.5% > > print(myAhp, "weight", filterFun = isNotLeaf) levelName weight 1 Choose the Most Suitable Leader 1.00000000 2 ¦–Experience 0.54756924 3 ¦–Education 0.12655528 4 ¦–Charisma 0.26994992 5 °–Age 0.05592555 > print(myAhp, "weight") levelName weight 1 Choose the Most Suitable Leader 1.00000000 2 ¦–Experience 0.54756924 3 ¦ ¦–Tom 0.21716561 4 ¦ ¦–Dick 0.71706504 5 ¦ °–Harry 0.06576935 6 ¦–Education 0.12655528 7 ¦ ¦–Tom 0.18839410 8 ¦ ¦–Dick 0.08096123 9 ¦ °–Harry 0.73064467 10 ¦–Charisma 0.26994992 11 ¦ ¦–Tom 0.74286662 12 ¦ ¦–Dick 0.19388163 13 ¦ °–Harry 0.06325174 14 °–Age 0.05592555 15 ¦–Tom 0.26543334 16 ¦–Dick 0.67162545 17 °–Harry 0.06294121 [/code] You can also generate very beautiful output with the command below (but you’ll have to run the example yourself if you want to see how fantastically it turns out — maybe that will provide some motivation!) [code language=”bash” gutter=”false”] ShowTable(myAhp) [/code] I’ll post soon with an example of how to use AHP preference functions in the Tom, Dick, & Harry problem. ## My Second (R) Shiny App: Sampling Distributions & CLT Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to I was so excited about my initial foray into Shiny development using jennybc‘s amazing package that I stayed up half the night last night (again) working on my second Shiny app: a Shiny-fied version of the function I shared in March to do simulations illustrating sampling distributions and the Central Limit Theorem using many different source distributions. (Note that Cauchy doesn’t play by the rules!) Hope this info is useful to all new Shiny developers. If the app doesn’t work for you, it’s possible that I’ve exhausted my purchased hours at http://shinyapps.io — no idea how much traffic this post might generate. So if that happens to you, please try getting Shiny to work locally, cutting and pasting the code below into server.R and ui.R files, and then launching the simulation from your R console. Here are some important lessons I learned on my 2nd attempt at Shiny development: • Creating a container (rv) for the server-side values that would change as a result of inputs from the UI was important. That container was then available to the portions of my Shiny code that prepared data for the UI, e.g. output$plotSample.
• Because switch only takes arguments that are 1 character long, using radio buttons in the Shiny UI was really useful: I can map the label on each radio button to one character that will get passed into the data processing on the server side.
• I was able to modify the CSS for the page by adding a couple lines to mainPanel() in my UI.
• Although it was not mentally easy (for me) to convert from an R function to a Shiny app when initially presented with the problem, in retrospect, it was indeed straightforward. All I had to do was take the original function, split out the data processing from the presentation (par & hist commands), put the data processing code on the server side and the presentation code on the UI side, change the variable names on the server side so that they had the input$prefix, and make sure the variable names were consistent between server and UI. • I originally tried writing one app.R file, but http://shinyapps.io did not seem to like that, so I put all the code that was not UI into the server side and tried deploying with server.R and ui.R, which worked. I don’t know what I did wrong. • If you want to publish to http://shinyapps.io, the directory name that hosts your files must be at least 4 characters long or you will get a “validation error” when you attempt to deployApp(). ## Nicole's Second Shiny Demo App ## N. Radziwill, 12/6/2015, http://qualityandinnovation.com ## Used code from http://github.com/homerhanumat as a base ########################################################### ## ui ########################################################### ui <- fluidPage( titlePanel('Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem'), sidebarPanel( helpText('Choose your source distribution and number of items, n, in each sample. 10000 replications will be run when you click "Sample Now".'), h6(a("Read an article about this simulation at http://www.r-bloggers.com", href="http://www.r-bloggers.com/sampling-distributions-and-central-limit-theorem-in-r/", target="_blank")), sliderInput(inputId="n","Sample Size n",value=30,min=5,max=100,step=2), radioButtons("src.dist", "Distribution type:", c("Exponential: Param1 = mean, Param2 = not used" = "E", "Normal: Param1 = mean, Param2 = sd" = "N", "Uniform: Param1 = min, Param2 = max" = "U", "Poisson: Param1 = lambda, Param2 = not used" = "P", "Cauchy: Param1 = location, Param2 = scale" = "C", "Binomial: Param1 = size, Param2 = success prob" = "B", "Gamma: Param1 = shape, Param2 = scale" = "G", "Chi Square: Param1 = df, Param2 = ncp" = "X", "Student t: Param1 = df, Param2 = not used" = "T")), numericInput("param1","Parameter 1:",10), numericInput("param2","Parameter 2:",2), actionButton("takeSample","Sample Now") ), # end sidebarPanel mainPanel( # Use CSS to control the background color of the entire page tags$head(
tags$style("body {background-color: #9999aa; }") ), plotOutput("plotSample") ) # end mainPanel ) # end UI ############################################################## ## server ############################################################## library(shiny) r <- 10000 # Number of replications... must be ->inf for sampling distribution! palette(c("#E41A1C", "#377EB8", "#4DAF4A", "#984EA3", "#FF7F00", "#FFFF33", "#A65628", "#F781BF", "#999999")) server <- function(input, output) { set.seed(as.numeric(Sys.time())) # Create a reactive container for the data structures that the simulation # will produce. The rv$variables will be available to the sections of your
# server code that prepare output for the UI, e.g. output$plotSample rv <- reactiveValues(sample = NULL, all.sums = NULL, all.means = NULL, all.vars = NULL) # Note: We are giving observeEvent all the output connected to the UI actionButton. # We can refer to input variables from our UI as input$variablename
observeEvent(input$takeSample, { my.samples <- switch(input$src.dist,
"E" = matrix(rexp(input$n*r,input$param1),r),
"N" = matrix(rnorm(input$n*r,input$param1,input$param2),r), "U" = matrix(runif(input$n*r,input$param1,input$param2),r),
"P" = matrix(rpois(input$n*r,input$param1),r),
"C" = matrix(rcauchy(input$n*r,input$param1,input$param2),r), "B" = matrix(rbinom(input$n*r,input$param1,input$param2),r),
"G" = matrix(rgamma(input$n*r,input$param1,input$param2),r), "X" = matrix(rchisq(input$n*r,input$param1),r), "T" = matrix(rt(input$n*r,input$param1),r)) # It was very important to make sure that rv contained numeric values for plotting: rv$sample <- as.numeric(my.samples[1,])
rv$all.sums <- as.numeric(apply(my.samples,1,sum)) rv$all.means <- as.numeric(apply(my.samples,1,mean))
rv$all.vars <- as.numeric(apply(my.samples,1,var)) } ) output$plotSample <- renderPlot({
# Plot only when user input is submitted by clicking "Sample Now"
if (input$takeSample) { # Create a 2x2 plot area & leave a big space (5) at the top for title par(mfrow=c(2,2), oma=c(0,0,5,0)) hist(rv$sample, main="Distribution of One Sample",
ylab="Frequency",col=1)
hist(rv$all.sums, main="Sampling Distribution of the Sum", ylab="Frequency",col=2) hist(rv$all.means, main="Sampling Distribution of the Mean",
ylab="Frequency",col=3)
hist(rv$all.vars, main="Sampling Distribution of the Variance", ylab="Frequency",col=4) mtext("Simulation Results", outer=TRUE, cex=3) } }, height=660, width=900) # end plotSample } # end server ## My First (R) Shiny App: An Annotated Tutorial Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to I’ve been meaning to learn Shiny for 2 years now… and thanks to a fortuitous email from @ImADataGuy this morning and a burst of wild coding energy about 5 hours ago, I am happy to report that I have completely fallen in love again. The purpose of this post is to share how I got my first Shiny app up and running tonight on localhost, how I deployed it to the http://shinyapps.io service, and how you can create a “Hello World” style program of your own that actually works on data that’s meaningful to you. If you want to create a “Hello World!” app with Shiny (and your own data!) just follow these steps: 0. Install R 3.2.0+ first! This will save you time. 1. I signed up for an account at http://shinyapps.io. 2. Then I clicked the link in the email they sent me. 3. That allowed me to set up my https://radziwill.shinyapps.io location. 4. Then I followed the instructions at https://www.shinyapps.io/admin/#/dashboard (This page has SPECIAL SECRET INFO CUSTOMIZED JUST FOR YOU ON IT!!) I had lots of problems with devtools::install_github('rstudio/shinyapps') - Had to go into my R directory, manually delete RCurl and digest, then reinstall both RCurl and digest... then installing shinyapps worked. Note: this last command they tell you to do WILL NOT WORK because you do not have an app yet! If you try it, this is what you'll see: > shinyapps::deployApp('path/to/your/app') Error in shinyapps::deployApp("path/to/your/app") : C:\Users\Nicole\Documents\path\to\your\app does not exist 5. Then I went to http://shiny.rstudio.com/articles/shinyapps.html and installed rsconnect. 6. I clicked on my name and gravatar in the upper right hand corner of the https://www.shinyapps.io/admin/#/dashboard window I had opened, and then clicked "tokens". I realized I'd already done this part, so I skipped down to read "A Demo App" on http://shiny.rstudio.com/articles/shinyapps.html 7. Then, I re-installed ggplot2 and shiny using this command: install.packages(c('ggplot2', 'shiny')) 8. I created a new directory (C:/Users/Nicole/Documents/shinyapps) and used setwd to get to it. 9. I pasted the code at http://shiny.rstudio.com/articles/shinyapps.html to create two files, server.R and ui.R, which I put into my new shinyapps directory under a subdirectory called demo. The subdirectory name IS your app name. 10. I typed runApp("demo") into my R console, and voila! The GUI appeared in my browser window on my localhost. -- Don't just try to close the browser window to get the Shiny app to stop. R will hang. To get out of this, I had to use Task Manager and kill R. --- Use the main menu, and do Misc -> Stop Current Computation 11. I did the same with the "Hello Shiny" code at http://shiny.rstudio.com/articles/shinyapps.html. But what I REALLY want is to deploy a hello world app with MY OWN data. You know, something that's meaningful to me. You probably want to do a test app with data that is meaningful to you... here's how you can do that. 12. A quick search shows that I need jennybc's (Github) googlesheets package to get data from Google Drive viewable in my new Shiny app. 13. So I tried to get the googlesheets package with this command: devtools::install_github('jennybc/googlesheets') but then found out it requires R version 3.2.0. I you already have 3.2.0 you can skip to step 16 now. 14. So I reinstalled R using the installr package (highly advised if you want to overcome the agony of upgrading on windows). See http://www.r-statistics.com/2013/03/updating-r-from-r-on-windows-using-the-installr-package/ for info -- all it requires is that you type installR() -- really! 15. After installing R I restarted my machine. This is probably the first time in a month that I've shut all my browser windows, documents, spreadsheets, PDFs, and R sessions. I got the feeling that this made my computer happy. 16. Then, I created a Google Sheet with my data. While viewing that document, I went to File -> "Publish to the Web". I also discovered that my DOCUMENT KEY is that looooong string in the middle of the address, so I copied it for later: 1Bs0OH6F-Pdw5BG8yVo2t_VS9Wq1F7vb_VovOmnDSNf4 17. Then I created a new directory in C:/Users/Nicole/Documents/shinyapps to test out jennybc's googlesheets package, and called it jennybc 18. I copied and pasted the code in her server.R file and ui.R file from https://github.com/jennybc/googlesheets/tree/master/inst/shiny-examples/01_read-public-sheet into files with the same names in my jennybc directory 19. I went into my R console, used getwd() to make sure I was in the C:/Users/Nicole/Documents/shinyapps directory, and then typed runApp("jennybc") 20. A browser window popped up on localhost with her test Shiny app! I played with it, and then closed that browser tab. 21. When I went back into the R console, it was still hanging, so I went to the menu bar to Misc -> Stop Current Computation. This brought my R prompt back. 22. Now it was time to write my own app. I went to http://shiny.rstudio.com/gallery/ and found a layout I liked (http://shiny.rstudio.com/gallery/tabsets.html), then copied the server.R and ui.R code into C:/Users/Nicole/Documents/shinyapps/my-hello -- and finally, tweaked the code and engaged in about 100 iterations of: 1) edit the two files, 2) type runApp("my-hello") in the R console, 3) test my Shiny app in the browser window, 4) kill browser window, 5) do Misc -> Stop Current Computation in R. ALL of the computation happens in server.R, and all the display happens in ui.R: server.R: library(shiny) library(googlesheets) library(DT) my_key <- "1Bs0OH6F-Pdw5BG8yVo2t_VS9Wq1F7vb_VovOmnDSNf4" my_ss <- gs_key(my_key) my_data <- gs_read(my_ss) shinyServer(function(input, output, session) { output$plot <- renderPlot({
my_data$type <- ordered(my_data$type,levels=c("PRE","POST"))
boxplot(my_data$score~my_data$type,ylim=c(0,100),boxwex=0.6)
})
output$summary <- renderPrint({ aggregate(score~type,data=my_data, summary) }) output$the_data <- renderDataTable({
datatable(my_data)
})

})

ui.R:

library(shiny)
library(shinythemes)

shinyUI(fluidPage(

# Application title
titlePanel("Nicole's First Shiny App"),

# Sidebar with controls to select the random distribution type
# and number of observations to generate. Note the use of the
# br() element to introduce extra vertical spacing
sidebarLayout(
sidebarPanel(
helpText("This is my first Shiny app!! It grabs some of my data
also used lots of examples from"),
h6(a("http://shiny.rstudio.com/gallery/",
href="http://shiny.rstudio.com/gallery/", target="_blank")),
br(),
href="http://qualityandinnovation.com/2015/12/08/my-first-shin
y-app-an-annotated-tutorial/",
target="_blank")),
br()
),

# Show a tabset that includes a plot, summary, and table view
# of the generated distribution
mainPanel(
tabsetPanel(type = "tabs",
tabPanel("Plot", plotOutput("plot")),
tabPanel("Summary", verbatimTextOutput("summary")),
tabPanel("Table", DT::dataTableOutput("the_data"))
)
)
)
))


23. Once I decided my app was good enough for my practice round, it was time to
deploy it to the cloud.
24. This part of the process requires the shinyapps and dplyr
packages, so be sure to install them:

library(dplyr)
devtools::install_github('rstudio/shinyapps')
library(shinyapps)
25. To deploy, all I did was this: setwd("C:/Users/Nicole/Documents/shinyapps/my-hello/")
deployApp()


## Data Quality is Key for Asset Management in Data Science

This post was motivated by two recent tweets by Dr. Diego Kuonen, Principal of Statoo Consulting in Switzerland (who you should definitely follow if you don’t already – he’s one of the only other people in the world who thinks about data science and quality). First, he shared a slide show from CIO Insight with this clickbaity title, bound to capture the attention of any manager who cares about their bottom line (yeah, they’re unicorns):

“The Best Way to Use Data to Cut Costs? Delete It.”

I’m so happy this message is starting to enter corporate consciousness, because I lived it throughout the decade of the 2000’s — working on data management for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). I published several papers during that time that present the following position on this theme (links to the full text articles are at the bottom of this post):

• First, storing data means you’ve saved it to physical media; archiving data implies that you are storing data over a longer (and possibly very long) time horizon.
• Even though storage is cheap, don’t store (or archive) everything. Inventories have holding costs, and data warehouses are no different (even though those electrons are so, so tiny).
• Archiving data that is of dubious quality is never advised. (It’s like piling your garage full of all those early drafts of every paper you’ve ever written… and having done this, I strongly recommend against it.)
• Sometimes it can be hard to tell whether the raw data we’re collecting is fundamentally good or bad — but we have to try.
• Data science provides fantastic techniques for learning what is meant by data quality, and then automating the classification process.
• The intent of whoever collects the data is bound to be different than whoever uses the data in the future.
• If we do not capture intent, we are significantly suppressing the potential that the data asset will have in the future.

Although I hadn’t seen this when I was deeply enmeshed in the problem long ago, it totally warmed my heart when Diego followed up with this quote from Deming in 1942:

In my opinion, the need for a dedicated focus on understanding what we mean by data quality (for our particular contexts) and then working to make sure we don’t load up our Big Data opportunities with Bad Data liabilities will be the difference between competitive and combustible in the future. Mind your data quality before your data science. It will also positively impact the sustainability of your data archive.

Papers where I talked about why NOT to archive all your data are here:

1. Radziwill, N. M., 2006: Foundations for Quality Management of Scientific Data Products. Quality Management Journal, v13 Issue 2 (April), p. 7-21.
2. Radziwill, N. M., 2006: Valuation, Policy and Software Strategy. SPIE, Orlando FL, May 25-31.
3. Radziwill, N.M. and R. DuPlain, 2005: A Framework for Telescope Data Quality Management. Proc. SPIE, Madrid, Spain, October 2-5, 2005.
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