Tag Archives: crisis

Perception of Value & Today’s Cryptocurrency “Crash”

Artist’s rendering of Bitcoin. THERE ARE NO ACTUAL COINS THAT LOOK LIKE THIS. Don’t ever let anyone sell you one.

Today, many cryptocurrencies lost ~35-50% of their value. Reddit even posted contact information for the National Suicide Prevention Hotline in /r/cryptocurrency, knowing how emotional investors were bound to be today. Bitcoin, which was nearly $20K in mid-December and has been hovering near $14K this past week, dropped nearly $4K and almost sunk below the $10K milestone. I usually track the price of Bitcoin at http://bitcointicker.co, which can show the posted prices from several exchanges (web locations where people go to buy and sell, like Ebay). There are hundreds of cryptocurrencies and many of them dropped in value today.

Why did the prices drop so much on Tuesday? Here are some likely influences:

Market prices are usually driven by supply and demand — for example, if there aren’t that many lobsters available in a particular area at a particular time, and you go to a restaurant hoping to order one — you’ll pay a premium. But that price is also influenced by the quality of the product, the image of the product, which influences your perception of its value. Quality reflects how well something satisfies stated and implied needs or expectations.

Value, however, is quality relative to price, and influenced by image. And people are not always rational: they’ll pay a premium for image, even if the value of a product isn’t particularly high. Just think of all the Macs on display at schools, coffee shops, and airports. Price is related to value… usually, price goes up as value goes up.

Where’s the value of cryptocurrency? A Bitcoin does not, on its own, have any inherent value — just like a dollar or a Euro (a “fiat currency”). But the prospect of an asset that will increase in perceived value — where you can buy low, hold (sometimes just for a few days), and sell high because there are lots of people willing to buy it from you — will have perceived value. Hundreds of early adopters — or “Bitcoin millionaires” — are getting people excited about the prospect of making small investments and reaping huge rewards. That this has happened so recently lends a mystique to ownership of cryptocurrencies and Altcoins (or “alternatives to Bitcoin,” like Ether) in addition to the novelty.

Value is attributed to things by people, and cryptocurrencies are no exception. The quality of the currency itself, and the technical solidity of the platform upon which one is based, isn’t really tied to the cryptocurrency price right now — although this will probably change as knowledge and awareness increases.

Is this the end of Bitcoin? That’s doubtful — there are too many innovators who insist on exploring the technological landscape of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology, and lots of investors willing to fund them. In the meantime, there are unlikely benefits: because cryptocurrencies are not yet mainstream, a “crypto crash” is not as likely to ripple through the whole economy (no pun intended) like the subprime mortgage crisis of 2008. But if you do decide to buy cryptocurrency, don’t invest any more than you can afford to lose.

What Protests and Revolutions Reveal About Innovation

The following book review will appear in an issue of the Quality Management Journal later this year:

The End of Protest: A New Playbook for Revolution.   2016.  Micah White.  Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Alfred A. Knopf Publishing.  317 pages.

You may wonder why I’m reviewing a book written by the creator of the Occupy movement for an audience of academics and practitioners who care about quality and continuous improvement in organizations, many of which are trying to not only sustain themselves but also (in many cases) to make a profit. The answer is simple: by understanding how modern social movements are catalyzed by decentralized (and often autonomous) interactive media, we will be better able to achieve some goals we are very familiar with. These include 1) capturing the rapidly changing “Voice of the Customer” and, in particular, gaining access to its silent or hidden aspects, 2) promoting deep engagement, not just in work but in the human spirit, and 3) gaining insights into how innovation can be catalyzed and sustained in a truly democratic organization.

This book is packed with meticulously researched cases, and deeply reflective analysis. As a result, is not an easy read, but experiencing its modern insights in terms of the historical context it presents is highly rewarding. Organized into three sections, it starts by describing the events leading up to the Occupy movement, the experience of being a part of it, and why the author feels Occupy fell short of its objectives. The second section covers several examples of protests, from ancient history to modern times, and extracts the most important strategic insight from each event. Next, a unified theory of revolution is presented that reconciles the unexpected, the emotional, and the systematic aspects of large-scale change.

The third section speaks directly to innovation. Some of the book’s most powerful messages, the principles of revolution, are presented in Chapter 14. “Understanding the principles behind revolution,” this chapter begins, “allows for unending tactical innovation that shifts the paradigms of activism, creates new forms of protest, and gives the people a sudden power over their rulers.” If we consider that we are often “ruled” by the status quo, then these principles provide insight into how we can break free: short sprints, breaking patterns, emphasizing spirit, presenting constraints, breaking scripts, transposing known tactics to new environmental contexts, and proposing ideas from the edge. The end result is a masterful work that describes how to hear, and mobilize, the collective will.

 

Reviewed by

Dr. Nicole M. Radziwill

 

Writing about Business Model Innovation: Where Do You Start?

Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to

Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to

Innovation is what happens when we create new value by meeting needs. Sometimes, this comes in the form of a new process, product, or program. Other times, it comes in the form of reconfiguring the whole ecosystem for creating and sharing that value — also known as “business model innovation.”

A business model is a conceptual tool containing a set of objects, concepts and their relationships with the objective to express the business logic of a specific firm. Therefore we must consider which concepts and relationships allow a simplified description and representation of what value is provided to customers, how this is done and with which financial consequences. — Osterwalder, Pigneur, & Tucci (2005)

But if you’re an academic (or part of the BIF community), where do you find research on business model innovation, and where should you publish research and insights about business model innovation? I have a paper that’s in preparation, and I need to know where I should send it (mostly, just to know how many words I should have before I stop writing). So I went on a little journey to help figure this out, which also yielded a recommendation for three authors that you really should read if you’re publishing in this area.

Step 1: Read Zott, Amit & Massa (2011) – which provides a contemporary literature review of research on business models.

Step 2: Decide whether you’d like to publish in a traditional journal that covers business models and business model innovation, but is not solely dedicated to that pursuit. As its source material, the Zott article drew from 9 academic journals and 3 practitioner journals that meet this criterion. You can start your process by exploring business model research in these journals:

Academic Journals:

Practitioner-oriented journals:

Step 3: Consider journals that are new and/or primarily focused on business model innovation. Here are 3 that I found, with information about their publication and the publishing process. Enjoy exploring.

1. Journal of Business Models
http://journals.aau.dk/index.php/JOBM
Author guidelines at http://journals.aau.dk/index.php/JOBM/about/submissions#authorGuidelines
Sample Issue at: http://journals.aau.dk/index.php/JOBM/issue/view/106
PAGE CHARGES: Yes, but amount not specified

OPEN ACCESS POLICY/Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)
Audience: Academics and Consultants
Scope: International
Format: 5000-8000 words, MS Word
References: Harvard style (examples in author guidelines)
Accepts: Research paper, viewpoint, technical paper, conceptual paper, case study, lit review, review

The array of perspectives presented above lead to the identification of 10 key theme areas for which the
Journal of Business Models intends to have a special focus:

1. Business Model Design: designing, rejuvenating, innovating and facilitating
2. Implementing business models: the execution process
3. Commercialization and exploitation of ideas through business models: challenging entrepreneurial processes
4. Seeking the true benefits of a globalised world: how internationalization of activities affects business
models
5. Business model archetypes and key components: integrating building blocks and typologies
6. The strategic partnerships of business models: Roles and relationships within and among business models
7. Business models and high-tech ventures
8. The performance of business models: Dilemmas and paradoxes of performance measurement consequences
9. Defining what business models are about: The epistemological and conceptual roots of business models and
their differences with strategy, strategic management, organisation and business planning
10. Tools and techniques

“Soon we are opening a new section on book reviews. If you are interested in making a book review please send
an e-mail to Christian Nielsen (chn@business.aau.dk). The first review is of Osterwalder and Pigneur’s new
book “Value Proposition Design” which will be published soon.”

2. Long Range Planning (an International Journal of Strategic Management)
http://www.journals.elsevier.com/long-range-planning/
Author guidelines at: http://www.elsevier.com/journals/long-range-planning/0024-6301/guide-for-authors
Sample articles at: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/long-range-planning/open-access-articles/
PAGE CHARGES: Yes, $1800 USD, if you want your article to be open access.

OPEN ACCESS OPTION
Audience: Academics
Scope: International
Format: MS Word, length not specified
References: examples in author guidelines
Accepts: Research paper, technical paper

“The areas of work published by LRP include, among others: corporate strategy and governance, business strategy and new business models, international dimensions of strategy, strategies for emerging markets, entrepreneurship, innovation, organizational structure and design, corporate social responsibility, management of technology, methods for strategy research, and business processes.”

3. Open Journal of Business Model Innovation
http://www.scipublish.com/journals/BMI/
Auhor Guidelines at
Sample Article at: http://www.scipublish.com/journals/BMI/papers/1250 (can download PDF)
PAGE CHARGES: YES, but only after 3/31/05

OPEN ACCESS POLICY/IP sharing license not cited
Audience: Academics and Practitioners
Scope: International
Format: MS Word, “approximately 10 pages” with Cover Letter
References: examples in sample article
Accepts: Research papers, issue analysis, rigorous new insights that will advance the field

The Open Journal of Business Model Innovation is a peer-reviewed journal published by Scientific Online
Publishing. It presents current academic research and practical findings in field of business model
innovation. Topics appropriate and related to business model innovation include the role of business models
within corporations, the process and instruments for business model innovation, business models within
several industries, social business models and business models in emerging markets. Topics also include the
quantitative and qualitative evaluation of business models. The journal addresses issues as: What are the
drivers for business model innovation? How companies innovate their business model? How do companies evaluate
existing and new business models? How do companies integrate business models in their corporation? How do
companies manage multiple business models? Disciplinary boundaries that straddle business model innovation
include strategic management, entrepreneurship, innovation management and others.

What #BIF9 and Burning Man Taught Me About Transformation – Part II (via Deming!)

brc-phone

Even the phones at Burning Man tell you that you’re in Black Rock City, NV

In Part I, I described some observations from my experiences at BIF and Burning Man, and alluded to the notion that I might have uncovered a very simple “secret sauce” they share. Here are the observations:

  • Both communities consist of active and engaged participants who could be considered “innovation junkies”. Whereas the BIF crowd focuses on more traditional organizational and social innovation, the Burning Man crowd spans the extremes of experiential innovation (through art, technology, interactions with other people, or even just figuring out how to navigate life in the Black Rock Desert).
  • “Random Collisions of Unusual Suspects” (#RCUS) is the norm in both environments. First, the “unusual suspects” seem to be attracted to opportunities to be inspired and get their brains re-wired; second, the participants in both environments seem predisposed to the notion that serendipity is working on their behalf — and they let it happen.
  • People at both BIF and Burning Man tend towards non-judgment, seeking to appreciate and learn from their differences (rather than to resist, deny, or challenge those differences).

The common thread is that both environments have something magical designed into them, and this is the secret sauce: the push to drive out fear. Many of the BIF storytellers have been through Campbell’s Hero’s Journey and make themselves vulnerable so that the audience can vicariously (and often emotionally!) experience their transformation; at Burning Man, you’re stripped of your usual identity and thus unburdened from the fear you might carry as a result of having developed that identity over so many years.

When quality guru W. Edwards Deming formulated his 14 Points decades ago – principles for managers to transform business effectiveness – he expressed that the purpose of the points was to enable everyone to work with joy. One of the points (my favorite one, in fact) is to drive out fear so that everyone may work effectively.

If you are to fully embrace innovation, there is no room for fear! You must work towards fully being yourself, to push your own boundaries, and by extension, to push the boundaries of others, and to push the boundaries of traditional and accepted ways of doing things (“business models”). You are encouraged to own your own story, to TELL your own story, and to connect with others to help them identify with their own stories – and chase away the fear of being authentic, of being able to contribute to your greatest potential.

Why do we hold back? Why are we fearful? (I do it too, all the time.)

  • I am afraid you won’t accept me. I am afraid you won’t like me.
  • I am afraid you will disagree with my choices or decisions, and struggle with me or reject me as a result.
  • I’m afraid you won’t think I’m smart enough, good enough, worthy enough.
  • I am afraid that if you know who I really am, it might have consequences for my health or well-being (e.g. I could lose job, my reputation, my standing within the organization or community).
  • I’m afraid that what I’m trying to do – or be – just won’t work.

 

FEAR **IS** THE BOX.


To think “out of the box,” you must be living out of the box, and it’s an ongoing (and lifelong) process to do that.

I have not yet achieved healthy fearlessness as my steady state – I’m still awaiting bursts of my own personal transformation.  According to Ignite.me:

Joseph Campbell talked about the ‘Hero’s Journey’ whereby the hero is beckoned to enter an unfamiliar world.  When the hero enters this world, they are met with challenges, hurdles, and eventually a seemingly insurmountable confrontation which is achieved by using skills they picked up along the journey.  By overcoming this obstacle, the hero attains new self-knowledge which they can bring back to their people in the ‘ordinary land’ as their gift to the world.

Common themes of ancient mystery traditions are secrecy, death of the ego, participating with archetypal reality, and a rebirth of a new self.  The Eleusinian Mysteries took place over almost 2000 years and were shrouded in mystery from the uninitiated. Shamanic initiation often comes with the shaman being psychologically and experientially deconstructed and put back together.  Some tribal societies had rites of passage where children are ripped away from the bosom of the mother and left in the bush to learn how to become a warrior.  Rites of passage are transformational experiences where the old you is transformed into a new YOU.  That’s where we want to take you, and we create the container for that transformation.

What that means is that you may come as a journalist, or a chef, or a bike messenger, or a computer programmer but for the duration of our journey, you may choose to leave that behind to lose yourself in the present in workshops, dance, yoga, and celebration.  Transformation is disruptive and disorienting and actually occurs when past beliefs are shattered, habits are broken, and futures are rewritten.

By temporarily suspending fear, you create the space for transformation – the space for new experiences to redefine what you know and feel about yourself, and your interactions with other people and the world around you.

But this concept has been around for thousands of years… more on that tomorrow.

Adding a Little STEAM: On Risk, Failure, and the Quality of Higher Education

doug-fullsteamahead(Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to)

On Thursday, Morgan and I attended the first meeting of the Congressional STEAM Caucus on Capitol Hill… “a briefing on changing the vocabulary of education to include both art and science – and their intersections – to prepare our next generation of innovators to lead the 21st century economy.” STEAM seeks to promote creativity and innovation as key elements of Science-Technology-Engineering-Math (STEM) education. The “A” in STEAM reflects the growing awareness that art and design can be effective enablers, catalyzing the kind of creative thinking and openness to risk-taking that is critical for success in STEM. Although initially conceived by John Maeda of the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), the idea is catching on, and there are now many supporters scattered across the country.

Why is STEAM gaining steam? As expressed by the panelists at the Caucus, many now recognize that students just aren’t being prepared by our educational system to be creative, independent thinkers who are willing to take risks and experiment. On View from the Q this month, ASQ CEO Paul Borawski raised the same issue, citing the recent ASQ STEM careers survey of young adults: students know that you have to experiment (and sometimes fail) to be successful in STEM, and yet they admit that they’re afraid to take those risks.

Paul asks:

I want to know how you— the quality professional — handle failure in the workplace. Do you try again until you find a solution? Are you penalized for failure? Or do you avoid it altogether? How much risk are you willing to take to find solutions to quality challenges?

One of the reasons Morgan and I started the Burning Mind Project is that we wanted our students to feel comfortable taking risks, and accept full personal responsibility for the evolution of their own learning process. We use techniques like “choose your own grade” and “grading by accumulation” to encourage risk taking, eliminate penalties for “traditional failure,” and shift the focus to understanding and embracing quality standards on a personal and visceral level. We like what STEAM represents because the approach embraces divergent thinking, and thus innately supports the development of positivity and emotional alignment in an educational setting, which (a la Fredrickson) broadens the ability of students to see new opportunities and possibilities

That is, to invent (and ultimately – by understanding how to create value for others – innovate).

Your weaknesses may actually be the keys that reveal your secret strengths. As educators, it’s up to us to help facilitate this process of discovery, not to fail our students for engaging in it. As business leaders, this can be more difficult because many of us have convinced ourselves that we should only have to pay for those things that “pay off.” However, the lessons learned from traditional failure are often the most empowering, even though our ability to honor them may be weak.

Are Deming’s 14 Points Still Valid?

(Image Credit: Doug Buckley of http://hyperactive.to)

In 1986, W. Edwards Deming described the 14 Points that constitute his transformational theory of management in Out of the Crisis. These tenets were the basis for his success and fame as an agent of organizational and institutional change in post-war Japan.

Researchers and practitioners in quality management continue to honor Deming’s valuable contributions today. My 2013 QMJ article showed that Out of the Crisis has been the most central and authoritative resource influencing quality management research over the past two decades.

“The 14 Points all have one aim: to make it possible for people to work with joy.” — Deming, quoted in Gone But Never Forgotten, Quality Progress, March 1994

But are Deming’s 14 Points still valid in the post-2008 economic era?Although the financial landscape no longer seems as bleak as it did then, vibrant growth and globalization are no longer expected to dominate. And where co-creation of value and the importance of innovation are even more highlighted (e.g. the 2011 & 2015 ASQ Futures Studies)?

Deming’s 14 Points, Today

I decided to reflect on the 14 Points again in the modern context. My comments, for the Points that I think need a little adjustment, are in italics:

  1. Create constancy of purpose towards the improvement of product and service, with the aim of becoming and remaining competitive and providing jobs. I’d argue that merely remaining competitive and providing jobs is part of the old philosophy. What about providing meaning and purpose?
  2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. I’d argue that we’re ripe for a NEWER philosophy right now. We’re certainly in a different economic age than in the 1950’s when Deming first developed his philosophy, and we’re not in the same place we were in the 1980’s when he was writing and being a guru. What’s the new philosophy? I think it’s related to operationalizing the gift economy, pursuing individual transformation, and distancing our organizations from the mode of unbounded pursuit of profit (which to me, is waste). That’s just my opinion, though. What are yours?
  3. Build quality in (to products and services). This point has really stood the test of time, supported by the development of new methodologies for designing quality in, e.g. DFSS/DMDOV. Is there a comparable mechanism for designing quality into services?
  4. End the practice of awarding business based on (low) price; move towards a single supplier, build relationships based on trust and loyalty. Techniques for supplier management have become more robust, and whether or not your organization is implementing such techniques, I do believe that many businesses are using more robust criteria for identifying suitable suppliers and managing supplier relationships. But are those relationships based on trust and loyalty? Not sure this is possible when companies get so large that you don’t have personal relationships with your suppliers. 
  5. Improve constantly. Again, this has stood the test of time. Continuous improvement, in the academic and practitioner literature, has become like breathing air – it’s just something you do, or else you’ll die. Case closed.
  6. Institute training on the job. I don’t know anyone who doesn’t think this is a good idea.
  7. Institute leadership; help machines and people and gadgets do a better job.  Yet another good idea – but we can do better by actively driving out fear and eliminating barriers between people and between parts of organizations.
  8. Drive out fear. Out of all the 14 Points, this is the one I think we’ve collectively done a terrible job with the attention we give to it. Performance reviews are still commonplace. Power dynamics are still in place due to the nature of the manager-employee relationship, and this is exacerbated during times of recession when job loss seems to be a continual threat.
  9. Break down barriers between departments. I also think we should place more emphasis on breaking down barriers between people, and WITHIN people. Internal conflicts can be just as damaging as interpersonal conflicts and inter-departmental misalignment.
  10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets. I used to have a t-shirt that said “Committed to Quality.” It was a great shirt, and I wore it all the time. I don’t think it made me any more committed to quality though.
  11. Eliminate quotas, numbers, numerical goals. Does anyone actually pay attention to this one? Are most organizations just conveniently ignoring it? I’d love to hear some stories where this Point is actually being implemented.
  12. Remove barriers that impede pride of workmanship (amended by Deming in 1988 to “joy of work”). I haven’t seen many research studies that focus on pride of workmanship, joy in work, and other things (like confidence, inspiration, enjoyment) as critical success factors. Are we helping the members of our organizations become happier and more empowered? There has been a recent surge of interest in positive psychology within the quality literature; I believe that there are many outstanding opportunities in this area. For example, how does an increase in the pride of workmanship and joy in work affect the bottom line?
  13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. Although we could argue about what constitutes “vigorous,” I know that many organizations are committed to continuing education. Many could do better with honoring individual goals for self-improvement, particularly when the improvement does not directly relate to the person’s role within the organization. For example, how many managers encourage their employees to pursue an exercise program, if that employee really wants to make the effort to become more healthy?
  14. Put everybody to work to accomplish the transformation – the transformation is everyone’s job. It certainly is. But do we really know how we are being called to transform to survive – and thrive – in a global economy where the rules and the interests are fundamentally shifting? I’m not sure we know what’s required. It feels like (as a society) we are struggling to perform under the same economic rules and conditions that have guided us for the past 50 or so years.

What do you think? Are Deming’s 14 Points still valid, or should we revisit them and adjust?

Are there additional Points that we really should amend to his longstanding gospel of quality?

I believe that the core – the essence of the 14 Points is still valid – but that we should (as individuals and as a community) revisit the foundational principles upon which the Points are based to transform ourselves as a means of transforming the collective – making it possible for us and all those around us to work with joy.

Decidere: The Power of Decision

(Image Credit: Lucy Glover of Lucy Glover Photography, San Francisco, CA)

I committed to a decision today. It was a big decision — one that’s been hanging over my head for many months. I am certain that this decision will impact the rest of my life, and it’s so personal, I can’t even reveal to you what it is! But let me just say that it was a very difficult decision to make, mainly because it requires me to accept that other people are not going to change their behavior for me to get what I really want. All I can change… is me.

My ego had to get out of the way. I have to be selfless to pull this off, and I had to be selfless to say “I’m making this decision!” in the first place. My ego’s been scared.

In fact, I thought I got rid of the need to make this decision in the spring. I was wrong. It came back to me, like a boomerang, saying “You can’t do that! You’re going to have to deal with me.” Sigh… back to the drawing board.

“There are four purposes of improvement: easier, better, faster, and cheaper. These four goals appear in the order of priority.” – Shigeo Shingo

The word “decision” comes from the Latin decidere – to “cut off all other options.” This might seem drastic, but once you cut off all potential for doing or thinking or being any way that does not align with your DECISION, your life instantly becomes easier – the first and most significant element of Shingo’s conceptualization of improvement.

Decisions make things easier. Even the Harvard Business Review recognizes that “making too many decisions about mundane details is a waste of a limited resource: your mental energy.”  In their September 19, 2012 post entitled “Boring is Productive,” Robert C. Pozen notes that President Obama wears the same suits and eats the same breakfast to “routinize the routine” and give him more energy to make more significant decisions.

Being submerged in a continual stream of decisions not only weakens mental energy, but depletes emotional reserves (and willpower) too. I’m tired of being continually depleted of my emotional reserves. I had become so tired, that I had to make a decision about who I want to be. I’ve been afraid of getting hurt. I’ve been afraid of being abandoned. (And a lot of these feelings are rather tangential to the actual issue at hand… everything’s just all conflated inside of me.)

I’ve been worried about making the wrong decisionabout settling for something that’s less than what I know I really want, deep down on the inside. That’s why I’ve kept my options open… whyI haven’t cut off other options… so if a new opportunity comes around, I’m poised to capture it. I am not one to wait for the dandelion promises of an uncertain future, especially when those promises are made or implied by other people. All I have to depend on, really, is what’s inside of me – my state of being right now.

Part of me has been hesitant, thinking “if I make this decision, I’m accepting the things around me that I don’t like.” But then I realized that the decision and the external circumstances are not quite as entangled with one another as I might think. By making the decision, I’m changing everything around me, because I’m changing me.

“For so long most of us have used the term ‘decision’ so loosely that it’s come to describe something like a wish list. Instead of making decisions, we keep stating preferences… Making a true decision means committing to achieving a result, and then cutting yourself off from any other possibility.” — Tony Robbins, Awaken the Giant Within

Is there a decision hanging over you that’s sucking up your emotional energy? If you’re afraid of making the wrong decision, choose a “set point” in the future where you will allow yourself to revise your decision, to change the contract – and adjust, if appropriate. Make sure you give yourself enough time to get completely into the feel of your decision. And to watch the world around you adjust to your decision.

Make the decision.

Cut off any other possibilities.

Move forward and don’t look back.

Be IN the decision. Be a part of it. Invite it to become part of you…

…at least for a while, until maybe your “set point” date in the future.

But I guarantee you, when that day comes, the external environment will look so different that the reason you had to make the decision in the first place could have evaporated completely. The scene will have changed, along with the scenery, and perhaps even the actors.

And then you’ll probably be faced with another decision : )

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